Complications of Diabetes
Complications of diabetes are pathological conditions that inevitably occur in patients with diabetes mellitus. Even with the scrupulous implementation of all the recommendations of the attending endocrinologist, few of the people with diabetes manage to avoid them. The reason for this is that the disease is progressive, that is, the patient’s condition worsens over time.
What is the essence of the diabetes mellitus disease ?
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood sugar levels increase. This occurs for two main reasons: the body ceases to synthesize its own insulin, which converts sugar from blood to tissues, or the tissues become insensitive to it. In some cases, both of these mechanisms occur simultaneously. Lack of insulin is the cause of type 1 diabetes, insulin resistance is type 2 diabetes. But the result is one: there is a lot of glucose in the blood, but it does not reach the tissues that need it.
Classification of diabetes complications
Complications of diabetes can be divided into 2 main groups:
1. Acute complications
- Ketoacidosis and ketoacidotic coma. Ketone bodies accumulate in the blood. In the exhaled sick air, even at a distance, the smell of acetone is felt. Patients become lethargic, lethargic, drowsy. Without treatment, ketoacidosis can go into a coma.
- Hypoglycemia and hypoglycemic coma. A sharp decrease in blood glucose. It occurs if the patient injected short insulin (quick action) and forgot to eat, or was engaged in heavy physical work. The patient experiences a feeling of hunger, weakness. Sometimes loss of consciousness occurs and convulsions develop . With severe hypoglycemia, a person can fall into a coma.
- Hyperosmolar coma. It develops against the background of severe dehydration, with copious polyuria.
- Lactic acidosis coma. It occurs due to the accumulation of lactic acid in the blood in patients with cardiovascular disease, with renal and hepatic insufficiency.
2. Delayed complications
- Diabetic polyneuropathy. It occurs due to damage to the peripheral nerves. At first, patients feel constant numbness, tingling, pain in the fingers and toes. Sensitivity to cold and pain gradually decreases. Due to a decrease in the pain threshold, patients do not notice wounds, cracks, abrasions. Trophic ulcers, the so-called diabetic foot syndrome, gradually appear on the feet. Lack of timely treatment can cause leg amputation.
- Diabetic nephropathy. It occurs due to damage to the vessels of the kidneys. Renal failure gradually develops, nitrogen compounds are retained in the blood and intoxication of the body develops.
- Diabetic retinopathy. There is a lesion of the vessels of the retina, up to its detachment. After 20 years of experience, every diabetes patient has this complication.
- Diabetic angiopathy Violation of vascular permeability develops. They become brittle. Often there are complications such as bleeding or thrombosis of blood vessels.
Diabetes mellitus and complications are the cause of the constant headache of endocrinologists. To reduce the risk of their development, it is necessary to carefully follow all recommendations for diet, insulin therapy and constantly monitor the level of sugar with a glucometer.