Sugar on control: what is the danger of diabetes?
In 1991, World Diabetes Day was introduced as a response to the threat of an annual increase in the disease worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is also called the non-infectious epidemic of the 21st century. Indeed, according to statistics, more than 150 million people have this disease. The worst thing is that this huge figure is very approximate, since a sufficiently large number of people have a hidden form of diabetes mellitus. Prevention of this issue was commented on by an endocrinologist of the highest qualification category Anna Anatolyevna Izotova.
Several dozen types of diabetes are known. However, it is customary to divide all types into two types. The first type of diabetes is mostly clinically manifested and has pronounced symptoms. The second type of diabetes mellitus, at first, proceeds completely imperceptibly and is detected by accident, with other examinations. Constant thirst and an unusually high amount of urine are the first and main signal of diabetes. Along with this, a constant feeling of hunger, increased appetite and unrealistic weight loss are dangerous signs that confirm the presence of such a disease. The second type is asymptomatic for many years and is often detected already in the period of complications.
The first type of diabetes has an autoimmune nature, manifesting in children and young people. In old age, overweight, a second type of diabetes usually develops. The first type is a complete absence or partial decrease in insulin levels, therefore, with diabetes mellitus of the first type, insulin replacement treatment is performed. The second type is an absent or reduced sensitivity to insulin, therefore, such diabetes is treated with diet, exercise and pills that increase insulin sensitivity. There are “acute” and chronic complications of diabetes. “Acute” are the diabetic coma inherent in the first type. Chronic are long-term deformations of blood vessels and peripheral nerves: microangiopathy and neuropathy. Coronary heart disease is also often found in patients with diabetes. A blockage in the arteries of the legs, or otherwise “intermittent claudication,” can cause gangrene in the legs. Particular complications include loss of vision and polyneuropathy, which are characterized by loss of sensitivity. Diabetic patients without treatment are prone to frequent abscess skin infections (boils, superficial abscesses , etc.). Naturally, all of the above symptoms are not mandatory for each patient and they can be completely avoided with appropriate treatment. For the treatment of an insulin-dependent form of diabetes, the first medicine is insulin. Insulin injections require a strictly individual approach and great scrupulousness. You should carefully select the dosage and amount of insulin. With a sudden complication of well-being, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes needs to be given several pieces of sugar. It will prevent the development of coma and immediately improve the condition. Accordingly, with type 2 diabetes, insulin treatment is not required, doctors prescribe treatment with diet, exercise and pills. For patients with overweight, one of the most effective treatment methods is to normalize body weight, that is, use a low-calorie diet. Medical statistics say that diabetes can progress extremely quickly in one, and very slowly in the other. In this regard, you should not postpone a visit to the doctor, since the complications of diabetes are very serious, you only need to take a blood and urine test for glucose only once a year.