Type 1 diabetes

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Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease in which the blood sugar level is increased, that is, hyperglycemia occurs. High sugar levels have a very negative effect on the target organs of diabetes: eyes, heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and nervous system. Over time, their functions decrease, and their functional impairment develops. The disease belongs to the category of chronic, that is, unfortunately, the diagnosis is made for life. Medicine has not yet found ways to completely rid people of this ailment.

What are the main causes of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs due to the fact that special pancreatic beta cells cease to synthesize insulin. This substance carries out the transport of glucose from blood plasma to tissues. Thus, there is a lot of glucose in the blood, but it does not reach the tissues that need it.

The main causes of death of pancreatic beta cells are still not clear. One thing is very clear – a hereditary factor plays a very important role in the development of type 1 diabetes. Usually, the onset of the disease occurs after an infectious disease, often a viral, great stress, trauma. Also, type 1 diabetes is often combined with autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.

Who is more likely to suffer from type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is primarily caused by children and people under the age of 30. The earlier the disease started, the more aggressive its course will be and the more serious the prognosis.  

What are the main manifestations of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes usually begins acutely. A person begins to experience a strong thirst, can drink up to 10-20 liters of fluid per day. Also, at the same time, he urinated more frequently. Patients note a very severe hunger or, on the contrary, an aversion to food. But even if the appetite does not deteriorate, and they continue to eat normally, they quickly lose weight (by 10-20 kg in a few weeks). Against the background of dehydration, severe dryness of the skin and mucous membranes occurs, skin turgor decreases.

If a person who first has diabetes does not seek medical help on time, he may develop ketoacidosis. At the same time, the patient experiences severe weakness, nausea, decreased performance, abdominal pain, drowsiness, and the smell of acetone is clearly felt in the exhaled air. If untreated, this condition may result in a ketoacidotic coma, in which the patient loses consciousness, his breathing and the work of the cardiovascular system are disturbed. Without treatment, such a patient will die. 

Diagnosis and treatment of type 1 diabetes

The treatment of type 1 diabetes is carried out by an endocrinologist. At the stage of diagnosis, such a patient passes tests for fasting sugar, after eating, a glucose test, glycated hemoglobin. Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the selection of doses of insulin that the patient will administer to himself independently before each meal with a special syringe with a pen.

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