Diabetes mellitus type one or abbreviated diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood. An increase in blood sugar is a consequence of the dying off of beta cells located in the so-called "islets of Langerhans," that is, special areas of the pancreas.

Since the cells stop working and die off gradually, at the onset of the disease, the sugar increase can alternate with normal blood sugar levels.

The only treatment for type 1 diabetes is the administration of insulin from the outside, that is, insulin therapy. Introduced insulin replaces the one that is no longer produced in the right amount or is not produced at all.

Most often, type 1 diabetes develops in children, including infants, adolescents and young people under the age of 30 years. But, as always, there are exceptions, and a person with diabetes of the first type can get sick even at an older age.

There is diabetes mellitus much less often than diabetes mellitus type 2 and makes up no more than 15% of all people with diabetes.

Symptoms and manifestations of type 1 diabetes

Diabetes of the first type has a rapid onset and course before the start of treatment, so it can be detected at the earliest possible time. However, it often happens that a person falls into a hyperglycemic coma earlier than he is diagnosed with diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

The main features that should lead to a survey are:

  • constant thirst - a person can drink more than 3-5 liters. fluid daily, but not drunk at all;
  • frequent urge to urinate - are the result of high sugar;
  • weakness, severe fatigue;
  • Constantly increased appetite - even for those people who eat very little, the appetite greatly increases, but it's difficult to hammer out the feeling of fullness;
  • weight loss - despite the increased appetite, the person simply "melts before our eyes".

If you find any signs of the above, you should immediately consult a general practitioner, who will prescribe the necessary tests.

Analyzes that are prescribed for suspected diabetes mellitus:

  • blood glucose - given on an empty stomach, shows the blood sugar level at the moment;
  • load test - analysis is carried out in two or three measurements - on an empty stomach, 1 hour after 75 g of glucose and 2 hours after taking glucose;
  • glucose in the urine - with elevated blood sugar (above 7-9 mmol / l), glucose begins to be released through the kidneys with urine;
  • glycated (glycosylated) hemoglobin - blood test, which shows the average value of sugar in the last 2-3 months;
  • fructosamine - blood test showing the average value of blood sugar over the last 2-3 weeks;
  • antibodies to beta cells - analysis shows the process of destruction of beta cells;
  • antibodies to insulin - analysis showing the need for insulin therapy;
  • analysis for C-peptide - analysis shows the work of beta cells.

Based on the test results, the doctor will diagnose and prescribe treatment.

Causes of diabetes

To date, there is no definite answer to the question, why does diabetes mellitus arise? There are several hypotheses about this.

The hereditary factor - the assumption of the hereditary nature of diabetes takes place, but at the same time it is proved that the percentage of transmission of type 1 diabetes from parents to children is not so great.

On the maternal line, the percentage of inheritance is not higher than 5-7%, for men - about 7-10%.

Autoimmune process - for some reason the body fails, and beta cells begin to break down, which leads to the development of diabetes of the first type.

The development of diabetes is promoted by severe viral and infectious diseases (flu, sore throat, etc.).

Stress factor - constant stressful situations or severe stress can lead to type 1 diabetes.

Treatment of diabetes mellitus type one and the basics of insulin therapy

Immediately it is worth saying about the numerous proposals "to cure type 1 diabetes mellitus". All this is offered by unscrupulous "doctors" who have nothing to do with medicine. CD1 can not be cured (do not confuse with type 2 diabetes)!

No herbs, seasonings, baths, etc. unable to revive dying cells.

The only sure way to start insulin therapy. Since pancreatic cells cease to produce insulin in case of T1DM (an insufficient amount of insulin is produced first, then it ceases to be synthesized altogether), it is simply necessary to inject it from the outside.

It is important to start insulin therapy on time, to choose the right dose of insulin. Compliance with this condition will help to avoid complications of diabetes and preserve the residual function of the pancreas for as long as possible.

There are several schemes for insulin therapy

The most common scheme involves the use of two types of insulin - extended and short.

Extended or background insulin creates the background that in a healthy body creates a constantly producing small amount.

Short insulin should compensate for carbohydrates supplied during meals. It is also used to reduce high sugar.

Usually extended insulin is administered 1-2 times a day (morning / evening, morning or evening). Short insulin is injected before each meal - 3-4 times a day and as needed.

But all doses are selected strictly individually, as well as the scheme, it all depends on the daily routine, on the individual needs of the body, and on many other factors.

Some common points - in the morning the need for insulin is more than during the day and in the evening.

Initially, for the selection of dosages, it is recommended to adhere to the following statement:

  1. for breakfast for 1 XU or 10-12g of carbohydrates, 2 units of insulin are required;
  2. 1.5 units of insulin required for 1 XU or 10-12 g of carbohydrates;
  3. for dinner, 1 XU or 10-12 g of carbohydrates requires 1 unit of insulin.

Diet for type 1 diabetes

For T1DM there is no strict diet, so all incoming carbohydrates are compensated by insulin.

The most important thing is to correctly identify your need for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Typically, the body's need for inulin varies throughout the day, sometimes quite strongly.

At the very beginning of the disease, when there is only a selection of doses, it is better to use foods with a low glycemic index - bread, cereals. Then you can enter all the other products.

From the general recommendations - in the morning it is better to abandon the use of fast carbohydrates. This is due to the fact that in the morning insulin turns around much slower than at lunch or dinner. Thus, when eating sweets with a bang, you are more likely to get postprandialhyperglycemia (high sugar 1-1.5 hours after a meal).

In no case can not starve - to abandon the consumption of carbohydrates in order to reduce or completely abandon insulin injections.

It is very important to eat enough carbohydrates, as carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the normal functioning of the body, and due to their lack of body begins to process fats. And during the processing of fats, toxic substances are released than the substance - ketones, with their large accumulation, the body becomes poisoned. The accumulation of ketones is accompanied by deterioration - weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting. In severe cases, hospitalization is necessary.

Insulin dose calculation

As mentioned above, the selection of doses is individual. You can only give general recommendations that will help you choose the right dosage of insulin.

Extended insulin

Extended insulin - its injections should not affect the level of sugar.

If you measure sugar before injection, then after 2-3 hours or more sugar does not decrease and does not increase, then the dosage is chosen correctly. This is checked on condition of fasting and, accordingly, without short insulin tricks.

Since it is not safe to fast for a long time, the dose of prolonged insulin is usually checked for several days. First, put off breakfast and measure sugar every 1-1,5-2. The next day, put off lunch and again often measure sugar, on the third day, refuse dinner and check sugar again every 1-2 hours.

Then the same measurements should be taken at night. The point is to get up in the morning with the same sugar as you did in the evening.

If the sugar remains unchanged (fluctuations of 1-2 mmol / l are not considered), then this means that the dose of the prolonged inulin is chosen correctly.

There are several types of extended insulin. Some require a two-time introduction, others one-time.

Accordingly, the dose administered at a time changes.

With a single injection, the question arises as to whether it is better to give an injection - in the morning or at night. There is no single answer, it all depends on convenience, on the body's response to insulin, etc. One thing is important - insulin needs to be done at the same time every day.Then it will be possible to trace his profile, there will be no laying of tails from different injections on each other, there will be no periods when there is no insulin in the body.

Short insulin

crusty insulin Having picked up the dose of prolonged insulin, you can begin to select a short one. Short insulin is needed before a meal to compensate for carbohydrates from food.

When selecting a dose, it is better to eat foods with a low glycemic index, for example, cereals (in the form of cereals, ordinary side dishes, bakery products, dairy and dairy products).

Measure sugar before a meal, eat and measure sugar first 1.5-2 hours after a meal (peak of insulin and carbohydrate processing), then 3-4 hours after a meal (end of insulin action).

Sugar two hours after eating should be 2-3 mmol / l higher than before meals. If the sugar is lower than or equal to the sugar before the meal, then this indicates an overdose of insulin. If too high, then it says a lack of insulin.

Three to four hours after a meal, the sugar should be equal to the sugar before the meal. If it is higher, then it is necessary to increase the dose, if lower, then decrease.

It is important to know the insulin profile. Since short insulin, for example, actrapid , has a pronounced peak two hours after the injection and requires a snack at this time (1-2 XE), the ultrashort new-rapid does not work, but does not have a pronounced peak and does not require a snack.

In order to accurately pick up the dose, you need to know your need for insulin. That is, how many units of insulin is required for one XE or 10-12 grams of carbohydrates. Choose for yourself what you take as the basis for counting - bread units or the amount of carbohydrates, and then select the insulin dose needed to process these carbohydrates.

Important!. Insulin dosage is not constant. It can change (increase or decrease) during illness, during menstruation, during anxiety and stress, while taking various medications, when physical activity changes.

Often doses vary in summer / winter, reacting to heat and cold.

In general, there are many factors affecting dose changes, often a very individual reaction. Therefore, we must carefully treat all these manifestations. It is very useful to keep a diary in which all reactions and changes would be recorded.

Physical exercise

Exercise for people with type 1 diabetes is useful, as is the case for everyone else. Therefore, do not throw trainings or dances due to the fact that you have found the SD. It is only necessary to take certain moments into account, find out the reactions of your body, for which, at first, you will need especially careful monitoring of the sugar level. There are a lot of diabetics among athletes, actors and politicians, and this is an obstacle to their activities.

Type 1 diabetes

You should know that the load reduces sugar, the more intense the training or any other physical activities (work in the garden, snow removal, active cleaning, walking, etc.), the more energy the body spends on them, and, consequently, the stronger sugar.

Before the start of the load, it is recommended to measure sugar, if necessary (sugar around 4-5 mmol / l, with still unexplored reaction of the body, at the peak of insulin action) eat 1-2ХЕ (20-24g carbohydrates) in the form of bread, apple, cookies.

After 1-1.5 hours from the beginning of the load, measure the sugar again, if necessary (sugar from 4-4.5 mmol / l and below) eat fast carbohydrates - juice, caramel, honey, etc.

Sugar is reduced not only directly during the load itself, but sometime after. This also needs to be considered. It is possible that on the day of the load, it will be necessary to reduce the dose of short insulin for food intake after the load itself or even the dose of the prolonged one.

It is not recommended to go in for sports with sugar above 12 mmol / l, since the work of the heart increases with sports, and with high sugar this load increases several times.

In addition, physical exertion with elevated sugar can lead to its further growth.

Complications of type 1 diabetes

With a long absence of compensation, late complications of diabetes develop.

First of all, the vessels of the lower limbs are affected;

circulatory disorders develop in the eye vessels, lens opacification develops, eye pressure increases, leading to glaucoma;

kidneys are affected, the normal functioning of the kidneys gradually occurs.

For more information on complications, see the headings "Diabetes and the eyes (complications and prevention)", "Diabetes and the legs", "Diabetes and the kidneys".

Alternative Insulin Types

Now insulin can only be obtained in injections, but alternative types of insulin are being developed - in the form of an aerosol, tablets.

But while scientists have not been able to achieve the desired results. Since in such types it is difficult to calculate the dosage received (since not all the dose enters the blood, some are not absorbed due to the effect of gastric juice).

Aerosol types of insulin had many complications from the respiratory organs, and there was also a question about the exact dosage.

In the future, perhaps, this issue will be resolved, but for now it is worth making efforts and seeking good compensation so that complications do not develop, and in order to be able to lead a full life.

Places and technique of insulin administration

Insulin is given as a subcutaneous injection. Do not try to enter it as deeply as possible, otherwise it will be absorbed from the muscles much longer. Intradermal injections should also be avoided - in this case, insulin absorption will also be impaired.

In order to properly carry out the injection, a syringe or pen should be held at 45 degrees to the injection site and injected so under the skin.

Different types of insulin are administered in different places. Short insulin is usually injected into the abdomen and shoulder areas. In these places, insulin is absorbed most quickly, which is what is needed from insulin of short and ultrashort action. At the same time, insulin injected into the abdomen, will begin to work faster than that entered into the shoulder. This should be remembered - since in the morning the action of insulin is somewhat inhibited, and it works more slowly, and the amount injected into the abdomen will start to work faster than the same dose administered in the shoulder. And in those cases when it is necessary to quickly reduce sugar, it is also advisable to introduce insulin in the abdomen, and not in the shoulder.

Long-acting insulins are usually injected into the thigh (outer thigh) and into the buttocks (upper butt quadrant). From the extended insulin is not required speed, so it is injected into these places, where there are more muscles and adipose tissue.

There are some rules, the observance of which will help you avoid possible mistakes in the administration of insulin and their consequences:

Do not give injections in the same place. Try to choose places so that they are at a distance from the place of the previous injection. For example, in the morning, short insulin was introduced into the abdomen on the right side, in the afternoon - in the shoulder on the right side, in the evening - in the shoulder on the left side. The next morning - change zones. This is necessary so that the injection sites have time to heal, so that fatty seals are not formed, which will later slow down the absorption of insulin and can be painful.

The temperature of the insulin is also important. It is not recommended to inject insulin, which has just been removed from the refrigerator. Such insulin will work more slowly and may knock down an established regimen. Take out the insulin of their fridge in advance.

The speed of insulin also depends on the body temperature - that is, insulin introduced immediately after taking a hot bath, after playing sports, visiting the sauna will begin to work much, much faster. It is worth considering, especially if you are using ultrashort insulin. Sometimes it is necessary to introduce it after eating, to eliminate hypoglycemia.

No need to handle the injection site with alcohol immediately before the injection. If you already had to do this (for example, if the skin is contaminated), then wait some time for the alcohol to completely evaporate from the skin's surface, and only after that you can inject.

Store the insulin you currently use at room temperature. It must be protected from freezing and overheating. Therefore, going outside, wear a syringe pen in special thermo- covers.

How to choose a dose of insulin background?

Good compensation of diabetes begins with the selection of a dose of prolonged or background insulin. Only with the correct dose of background can you begin to pick up a dose of short insulin.

First you need to say a few words about the functions of the extended insulin. In a healthy person, the main part of insulin is produced during meals to compensate for incoming carbohydrates, but between meals and at night a small amount of insulin is produced, this is the so-called "background". It does not allow sugar to rise, but at the same time it does not reduce it. In a person with diabetes, this role is played by prolonged insulin.

There are different types of extended insulins that vary in time of action. Some types of insulin are active for 12 hours, such insulins require twice the introduction, usually it is morning and evening. The administration interval is 12 hours. Other types of insulin have a longer duration - up to 20-24 hours, they require a single injection per day.

Extended insulin must be administered at the same time, plus / minus 30 minutes-hour. Since without background insulin, the sugar begins to grow, and if it is introduced early, the tail of the previous injection will be superimposed on the newly introduced insulin, which will lead to a mandatory decrease in sugar.

Extended insulin, as mentioned above, mimics background insulin. It should be administered in such a dosage so as not to affect the sugar level, but also not to allow it to rise. That is, if you discard the jokes of short insulin and meals, sugar should stay at the same level for a day only with the introduction of prolonged insulin.

It is not always possible to quickly and correctly find the necessary doses, it takes time and effort, but the result is worth it. Properly chosen, extended insulin is the basis for good compensation, and therefore for a full life and well-being.

The selection of doses takes place in several stages, so it is easier for the body and for you. On the first day, stop breakfast and start measuring sugar every hour. Measure it right up to lunch. The next day, have breakfast as usual, and three hours after eating, start measuring sugar every hour, skip lunch, and before dinner, spend time at the sugar, then have dinner. On the third day, have breakfast, have lunch, but skip dinner, and measure sugar all the time. It is necessary to make measurements of sugar during the night. All these measurements should be taken several times to avoid random values. Ideally, if you got up with sugar 5mmol / l (8mmol / l, 12mmol / l) and without the jabs of short and "eating up" carbohydrates spent the whole day with this value (+/- 1-2 mmol / l).

If it is not hard to eat, then eat something that does not contain carbohydrates, for example, boiled meat, eggs, cucumber, cabbage, some cheese.

If, at the beginning of the measurements, your sugar, for example, was 7 mmol / l, and by the end it decreased to 4 mmol / l, then it is necessary to reduce the insulin dose by 1-2 units. If sugar, on the contrary, increased by 2 mmol / l or more, it is required to increase the insulin dose.

Another point to keep in mind. Some types of insulin have a cumulative effect. That is, when the dose is changed, the effect of insulin does not change immediately, but after 2-3 days. For example, when administering Lantus, to assess the adequacy of the dose, one should focus on the values of sugar two to three days after a dose change. And in the case of the introduction of protafan , you will immediately fix the dose change, since it does not have a cumulative effect.

It should be understood that insulin doses are not a static value, doses may vary depending on many conditions - MC in women, illness, surgery, taking certain medications, exercise, etc.

I recommend recording all measurements, insulin doses, the amount of food so that you can analyze the values and causes of sugar changes.

Perhaps at first glance it seems difficult and dreary, but in reality, it is a necessity, so please be patient to achieve good results in the future.

Somoji phenomenon

The phenomenon of Somodzhi called postglycemic hyperglycemia. That is, an increase in sugar in response to missed hypoglycemia.

A person may not feel the signs of approaching hypoglycemia and miss it. In this case, the body releases hormones - adrenaline, growth hormones, cortisol, glucagon. This leads to an increase in blood sugar and stops hypoglycemia.

Most often, hiding hypoglycemia occurs at night, when a person is sleeping and does not feel signs of falling sugar.

When in the morning a person measures sugar, he observes that he is greatly elevated. With constantly elevated sugar, the doctor makes a recommendation to increase the dose of prolonged insulin, and this in turn increases hypoglycemia and increases sugar after missed hypoglycemia. It turns out a vicious circle: hypoglycemia - hyperglycemia - increased insulin dose - even more severe hypoglycemia ...

It is important to distinguish the phenomenon of Somodzhi from the syndrome of the morning dawn. "For this you need a few nights to measure sugar before going to bed and during the night every two hours. This is the only way to determine what increases sugar - the lack of insulin or its excess.

Similarly, by frequent measurements, determine the cause of high sugar in the afternoon.

Symptoms that are worth paying attention to and which may be signs of an excessive dose of insulin:

  • Frequent hypoglycemia during the day and at night;
  • Frequent cases of high sugar;
  • Weight gain with decompensated diabetes;
  • Elevated acetone in urine.

When it becomes clear that the cause of high sugar in the Somoggia phenomenon, it will be necessary to reduce the insulin dose. Usually reduce the dose gradually, first by 1-2 units. Continue to reduce until hypoglycemia disappears.

Syndrome "dawn"

Dawn syndrome - the so-called phenomenon of rising sugar levels in the morning. It is observed in insulin-dependent and in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

With properly selected background insulin, when during the day the sugar stays at the same level without jabs of short insulin and without carbohydrate intake, an increase in blood sugar occurs in the morning hours (usually 5-8 hours in the morning). This happens due to an increase in the activity of contrainsular hormones, which reduce the effect of insulin.

This can be a temporary phenomenon, but it can be observed constantly.

The way out of this situation may be a small jab of short insulin during the sugar lifting hours. Usually enough 1-2 units.

If the time of the "morning dawn" syndrome coincides with breakfast, then this rise can be compensated by increasing the dose of short insulin for breakfast.

Another way to reduce morning sugar is to pick up the time of injection of prolonged insulin so that its peak falls on the rise of sugar in the morning.

Carbohydrate counting

To choose the right dose of insulin for a particular food, you need to know how much this meal contains carbohydrates or HE (bread unit).

Someone considers the amount of carbohydrates, someone considers the amount of XE, it is not so important in what units to calculate them, the main thing is to do it correctly.

And you just need to calculate how much insulin you need to compensate for one XE or a certain amount of carbohydrates. This can only be done experimentally: measure sugar before a meal, calculate the amount of carbohydrates per serving, make insulin, eat and measure sugar in 1.5 (with ultrashort insulin) -2 (for short insulin) hours, and then after 3-4 hours. During the first measurement after eating, the sugar should be 2-3 mmol higher than the initial one, and after 3-4 hours return to the initial one. So, by increasing or decreasing the insulin dose, gradually you will be able to pick up exactly your dose.

It should be remembered that insulin doses in the morning are different from lunch and evening doses, usually more insulin is needed in the morning.

Nutrition for diabetes

The diet of a person with diabetes, as well as the diet of a person without diabetes, should be varied and balanced. It should include carbohydrates, proteins and fats, all the necessary vitamins, amino acids. This can be achieved with properly selected treatment (adequate doses of insulin or sugar - reducing drugs).

It should immediately be said that nutrition in type 1 diabetes is different from nutrition in type 2 diabetes (in an insulin-independent form).

Most often, patients with type 2 are overweight, so they need a diet to lose weight and keep it at a normal level. Such people should exclude easily digestible carbohydrates from their diet, namely: sugar, sweets, buns, bread, potatoes, pasta, bananas, grapes. You should not get involved in sweet fruits, replacing them with sour-sweet (Antonovka, Semerenko ).

The refusal of fatty, fried foods will help reduce weight: replace fatty meats and fish with lean foods, butter with vegetable ones, and fried meat with stews.

The basis of the diet should be vegetables (except potatoes), lean meat, poultry, lean fish, fruits.

Over time, it will be possible to expand your diet with dried fruits, chocolate and some other products excluded from the beginning.

With type 1 diabetes, there are no restrictions on food. Naturally, with properly selected doses of insulin (with an even background and corresponding coefficients for food).

During the selection of doses is better to refrain from any raznozol, and then enter all the products to which you are accustomed.

It is worth remembering that carbohydrates carbohydrates - strife. There are fast carbohydrates - juice, jam, honey, caramel, and there are slow carbohydrates - bread, milk, pasta. But all this is quite arbitrary, some products from one person can quickly raise sugar, and another slowly. Therefore, it is necessary to study the reaction of your body to different products.

The fatter the products, the slower they "unfold" in the body. Fat yogurts, kefir, cream will not lift sugar immediately, but they can give high sugar in a couple of hours. Here, again, you need to check how they act specifically on your body.

Thus, we can summarize

In non-insulin dependent diabetes, diet is important. With a properly maintained diet, it is even possible to refuse drugs (ONLY at the recommendation of your doctor).

And insulin-dependent diabetes does not put any framework, you can eat, as always, only to correctly calculate the amount of carbohydrates and calculate the dose of insulin.

A new vaccine causes the body of diabetics to produce insulin on their own

Syringes will be a thing of the past - a new DNA vaccine has been successfully tested on humans.

Thanks to the development of a new method of treatment, people who suffer from diabetes mellitus of the first type will soon be able to forget about syringes and regular injections of insulin. Currently, Dr. Lawrence Steinman of Stanford University reported that the new method of treatment of diabetes of the first type was successfully tested in humans and may be widely used in the treatment of this disease in the foreseeable future.

The so-called "reversed vaccine" works by suppressing the immune system at the DNA level, which in turn stimulates insulin production. The development of Stanford University can be the first DNA vaccine in the world that can be used to treat people.

"This vaccine uses a completely different approach. It blocks the specific response of the immune system, and does not create specific immune responses like regular flu or polio vaccines", says Lawrence Steinman.

The vaccine was tested on a group of 80 volunteers. Studies have been conducted for two years and have shown that in patients who received treatment using the new method, there was a decrease in the activity of cells that destroy insulin in the immune system. However, no adverse effects after taking the vaccine were recorded.

As the name implies, a therapeutic vaccine is not intended to prevent a disease, but to treat an existing disease.

Scientists, having determined which types of leukocytes, the main "warriors" of the immune system, attack the pancreas, have created a drug that reduces the number of these cells in the blood, without affecting the rest of the immune system.

The test participants received injections of a new vaccine once a week for 3 months. In parallel, they continued to receive insulin.

In the control group, patients with insulin injections received a placebo drug instead of a vaccine.

The creators of the vaccine reported that in the experimental group receiving the new drug, there was a significant improvement in the work of beta cells, which gradually restored the ability to produce insulin.

"We are close to the realization of the dream of every doctor immunologist: we have learned to selectively" turn off "the defective component of the immune system without affecting its operation as a whole", - says one of the authors of this discovery, Professor Lawrence Shteynmen (Lawrence Steinman).

Type 1 diabetes is considered a more serious illness than its "brother" type 2 diabetes.

The word Diab tons - a derivative of the Greek word "diabayno", that means "pass through that - anything, though, proceeds". Antique doctor Areteus Cappadocia (30 ... 90 g of. N. E.) Observed at patient's polyuria, which is connected with the fact that liquid, entering into the body, flow through and stand in an unmodified form. In 1600 AD e. added to the word diabetes mellitus (from Lat. mel - honey) to refer to diabetes with the sweet taste of urine - diabetes.

Syndrome of diabetes insipidus was known in ancient times, but until the XVII century, the differences between diabetes and diabetes insipidus did not know. In the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, detailed work on diabetes insipidus appeared, the syndrome was linked to pathology of the central nervous system and the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. In clinical descriptions, the term "diabetes" often implies thirst and diabetes (diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus), however, there is a "going through" - phosphate diabetes, renal diabetes (due to the low threshold for glucose, not accompanied by diabetes) and so on.

Directly diabetes mellitus of the first type is a disease, the main diagnostic feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia - elevated blood sugar, polyuria, as a result of this - thirst; weight loss; excessive appetite, or lack thereof; feeling unwell. Diabetes occurs in various diseases leading to a decrease in the synthesis and secretion of insulin. The role of the hereditary factor is being investigated.

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but the most common cases are young people (children, adolescents, adults under 30). The basis of the pathogenetic mechanism of type 1 diabetes is insufficiency of insulin production by endocrine cells (β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans) caused by their destruction under the influence of certain pathogenic factors (viral infection, stress, autoimmune diseases, etc.).

Type 1 diabetes accounts for 10-15% of all cases of diabetes, most often develops in childhood or adolescence. The main treatment method is insulin injections, normalizing the patient's metabolism. In the absence of treatment, type 1 diabetes progresses rapidly and causes severe complications, such as ketoacidosis and diabetic coma, resulting in the death of the patient.