Acne: Causes and Treatment Methods
Acne or acne is a common skin condition characterized by blockage and inflammation of the sebaceous glands. Acne is chronic and manifests itself mainly in puberty, while the active stage of the disease can last up to 25-30 years.
In older adults, acne can occur with various diseases of the endocrine system, including Cushing’s syndrome and polycystic ovary disease in women. Skin manifestations, outwardly similar to acne, are observed in disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and nervous stress, but they have a different pathogenesis and require other methods of treatment.
Seborrhea is the cause of acne
The main cause of acne is seborrhea – a pathological condition of the skin, in which the work of the sebaceous glands is disrupted. Seborrhea occurs during periods of hormonal changes, including during puberty – such seborrhea is usually called physiological, and it is an absolutely natural phenomenon. In adulthood, seborrhea can appear with hormonal disorders and endocrine diseases.
Signs of seborrhea include:
- Oily shine of the skin, increased oily hair;
- Hyperkeratosis, dull skin color;
- Dandruff and flaking of the skin;
- Itching in the scalp.
Physiological seborrhea is usually characterized by increased production of liquid sebum, with thin, shiny skin and hair that quickly becomes covered with a layer of sebum. This type of seborrhea is usually called liquid.
Seborrhea – the cause of acne Another type of disease – thick seborrhea – is characterized by the release of thicker sebum. At the same time, the skin looks more matte and has a dull gray tint, and the inflammatory process occurs in the deep layers of the dermis. This type of seborrhea occurs mainly in men over 16-20 years of age.
Depending on the course of seborrhea, the skin may produce insufficient or excess sebum, respectively. At the same time, the composition of the sebum changes in such a way that its consistency becomes more viscous, and this makes it difficult to remove sebum to the skin surface and creates a plug that blocks the mouth of the sebaceous gland. At the places of blockage, in this case, point formations arise – acne.
The areas most prone to seborrhea are the scalp, as well as the forehead, nose, nasolabial triangle and chin – the so-called T-zone.
Varieties of acne
Depending on the type of seborrhea, skin area and individual characteristics of the body, acne can have various forms of manifestation:
- Comedones are flat spots that appear when the sebaceous glands are blocked.
- Papular acne or papules are small pinkish or red bumps indicating the onset of an inflammatory process.
- Pustular acne or pustules – papules with an abscess (pustule) in the center.
- Inductive acne is a large bluish-red papule or pustule that is firm and deep to the touch.
- Phlegmonous acne – bright red, flat lesions that are painful to the touch and contain a large amount of pus.
- Acne conglobata – acne that occurs when a group of eels merges.
The dynamics of the development of acne is determined by the number and type of acne in seborrheic zones. There are 3 main stages of the disease:
- Mild stage of acne. Comedones are present, there is a small number of papules or pustules – up to 10 pieces.
- Moderate acne. In addition to comedones, there are from 10 to 40 papulopustular acne in the seborrheic zone.
- Severe stage of acne. More than 40 papulopustular acne, indurative, phlegmonous or conglobatic acne are present.
When drawing up a course of treatment for acne and caring for problem skin, the specialist adheres to three main tasks: normalizing the production of sebum, reducing inflammation and reducing hyperkeratosis. At the same time, it is important to understand that cosmetic procedures are ways to help the patient only in the mild and moderate stages of acne, since at these stages the external influence can have the desired effect.
If the disease has become severe or does not respond to external influences at the stage of moderate severity, it is necessary to buy accutane online usa, antiandrogens and specific immunotherapy.
At an easy stage, acne treatment includes the following steps:
Regular cleansing care.
Skin cleansing should be done using soft gels, scrubs and foams, during the day and after make-up removal, it is recommended to use a moisturizing toner. It is also necessary to limit exposure to the sun.
Decreased sebum production.
In order to reduce sebum production, skin care should include the use of active serums and gels high in zinc, sulfur, as well as extracts of calendula, meliloto, and tea tree.
Removal of hyperkeratosis.
To remove excess horny scales from the surface of the skin, it is allowed to use agents and peels based on retinoid, salicylic, azelaic and enzyme bases.
To reduce the inflammatory process in the skin, agents such as clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, erythromycin, tretinoin are used.