Diabetes mellitus diet: harmful and healthy foods
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease today. Its occurrence is due to a deficiency (or low activity) of insulin. The consequence of the insufficient level of this hormone of the pancreas in the body is an increase in the content of glucose in the blood, leading to metabolic disorders. The main goal of therapeutic measures in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is the normalization of metabolic processes, which is expressed in a decrease in sugar levels in the circulatory system. Along with drug treatment, patients are prescribed a special diet that allows or prohibits the use of certain foods that affect blood sugar.
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Basic rules and nutritional features for diabetes
For many patients, “diet” is associated with the need to restrict tasty and nutritious foods. But this is a delusion. The diet for type 1 and type 2 diabetes must be tasty, varied and include healthy foods with the amount of fats, proteins and carbohydrates necessary for the normal functioning of the body. The basis of the diet is usually compiled on the basis of the principles of proper nutrition with minor adjustments to the individual characteristics of the patient’s health. You should not change your taste preferences abruptly and instantly. The transition to a healthy diet should take place gradually to avoid further damage to the body.
An endocrinologist or nutritionist for each patient develops his own meal plan, which is suitable for a particular type of person’s lifestyle.
General food rules
- Meals are broken down into 6-7 meals per day. The evenness of absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine depends on fractional nutrition, which contributes to a gradual increase in glucose levels.
- The timing of the snacks is consistent with the timing of the insulin injections.
- Breakfast is a must.
- People with diabetes eat food at strictly allotted (compiled for the patient) hours to regulate blood sugar.
- With diabetes mellitus, foods that increase blood sugar are excluded.
- The diet includes low-carbohydrate foods with sufficient fiber content.
- The amount of fat in meals should not exceed 30%. Half of them should be vegetable oils.
- The last meal should be 2.5 hours before bedtime.
- Alcohol, sweets, fast food, trans fats, semi-finished products are prohibited.
- It is advisable to cook food yourself from quality non-GMO products.
- Regular sugar is exchanged for sweeteners.
The diet can reduce the risk of vascular complications and prolong life.
Nuances of nutrition
Diet nutrition is the basis of the fight against diabetes mellitus. Food should replenish the lost energy of a diabetic patient. The ration is based on the calculation of bread units. One bread unit is equivalent to 12 grams of carbohydrates. To enhance the feeling of satiety in overweight patients with diabetes mellitus, the diet should include fresh and sauerkraut, spinach, vegetables, green peas, and tomatoes. For better functioning of the liver, foods are introduced into the diet that contain lipotropic substances: soy, oatmeal, cottage cheese. Fried foods are limited, as well as broths from meat and fish. Several types of diets have been developed for diabetic patients, but in most cases diet No. 9 is used. At home, it is easily adjusted to the individual characteristics of each patient with diabetes. To enrich the body with vitamins, decoctions of rosehip berries, yeast, and biologically active additives are introduced. It is prohibited to use chocolate, honey, ice cream, muffins, various jams, spicy, smoked, too spicy dishes. Bananas, raisins and grapes are also unacceptable.
A more flexible diet is made for a patient who is not overweight. For such people, it is sometimes allowed to take sugar in its pure form (about 50 grams per day).
What is a “unit of bread”?
A bread unit (XE) is a reference measure that is used to quantify the carbohydrates in each food item. A unit of bread equates to 12 grams of carbohydrates, which equates to 25 grams of bread (half a standard loaf, cut 1 cm wide). The counting of bread units is necessary to accurately calculate the introduction of the required amount of insulin. To assimilate 1 XE, 1.4 units of insulin are needed, since the consumption of the same 1 XE increases the sugar level by an average of 5 mmol / l. It should be borne in mind that each patient with diabetes has its own dose of insulin, which depends on the rate of its absorption into the blood, on insulin sensitivity, etc. In order to calculate the amount of XE in a product, you need to make a proportion. It is most convenient for making calculations to take as a basis that 1 XE = 10 grams of carbohydrates. The calculation takes into account only the amount of carbohydrates contained in the product. You can find out the exact amount of carbohydrates using the label that is attached to each product consumed. For example, 100 grams of bread contains 51.9 grams of carbohydrates. It turns out that 100 g of product * 10 g of carbohydrates (10 XE) / 51.9 g of carbohydrates = 19.2 g of product. This means that 1 XE = 19.2 grams of bread. For the convenience of patients with diabetes, there are special tables in which the amount of food per 1 XE is indicated in glasses, spoons, pieces. Bread units are counted by patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Glycemic index of foods
The glycemic index (GI) measures the rate at which carbohydrates are absorbed by the body, while increasing blood sugar levels. There is a certain scale of GI measurements, consisting of 100 units. The number 0 in it indicates the absence of carbohydrates in the product, and the number 100 indicates their maximum content. Low-carbohydrate foods (low GI) are slowly absorbed by the body, which avoids spikes in blood glucose levels. The quality of carbohydrates also affects sugar levels. There are simple and complex carbohydrates. The sooner they are absorbed by the body, the more they negatively affect glucose levels. Consistent high GI food intake disrupts the body’s metabolic process, dramatically increasing blood sugar levels. Therefore, choosing the right foods helps ensure that diabetes is properly compensated. To calculate the glycemic index, the index of sugar or white bread is used, since their value has a maximum level of 100 units. This number is compared to other carbohydrate foods. The glycemic index of foods depends on how they are prepared and processed, how the food is served (sliced or whole), the content of certain fibrous components, etc. A glycemic index level below 50 units is considered the most optimal. However, it is also allowed to eat foods with an average GI, i.e. from 50 to 70 units. The higher performing foods are a direct call for their complete elimination from the diet. The calculation of the GI is associated with a number of experiments. Therefore, on the basis of their research, scientists have created special tables in which you can easily find the desired product and find out its glycemic index.
Calculation of bread units and glycemic index is a habit and does not cause discomfort after 2-3 weeks of daily “training”.
What foods lower blood sugar?
The diet of people with type 1 diabetes mellitus is very carefully selected because their pancreas cannot produce insulin on its own. Its deficiency prevents glucose from being converted into energy, which leads to a deterioration in well-being. Diabetes itself is not terrible, but its consequences associated with complications during insulin deficiency can lead to fatal consequences. People who have been diagnosed with diabetes are required to eat a certain type of diet, which is associated with the consumption of low-carbohydrate foods (ie foods with a low GI). Despite the fact that vodka and cognac do not contain glucose, their use is fatal for diabetics. Vegetables and fruits have a low glycemic index. The most useful for diabetics are bell peppers, cauliflower, tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, radishes, spinach, and unsweetened fruits. Steamed and boiled vegetables and fruits are also beneficial for diabetics. It is better to season salads from them with olive oil or unsweetened yogurt. The use of spices, herbs, vinegar, ginger and mustard is allowed. The salt is replaced with lemon juice. Cinnamon is an excellent spice to lower sugar levels. The daily minimum (1/4 tsp) consumption of it in food helps to stabilize blood sugar levels. Fiber-rich foods also slow down the absorption of glucose. In addition, they stimulate the gastrointestinal tract and eliminate toxic substances from the body. Most often, it is recommended to eat oatmeal with nuts and pears. Thanks to this trio, the sugar level stops fluctuating, remaining at an acceptable level. The consumption of nuts reduces sugar levels. Spinach normalizes blood pressure and lowers sugar levels. Cherries are an excellent antioxidant and a source of fast-dissolving fiber. Garlic and lemon not only help lower blood sugar levels, but are also responsible for the production of insulin. In addition to these products, cabbage juice, chicory, grapefruit, rose hips, Jerusalem artichoke, parsley, celery, dandelion, horseradish contribute to lowering sugar.
What foods can you eat with diabetes?
Foods approved for consumption by patients with diabetes mellitus must have a low or medium glycemic index. They will help the body get saturated with nutrients without increasing glucose levels. Porridge is the basis for diabetics’ diet. They are able to suppress the feeling of hunger for a long period of time, saturating the body with fiber, vitamins and trace elements. Buckwheat is also rich in vitamins. Its GI is 50 units, which allows it to be consumed in significant quantities. From cereals, the use of barley, brown rice, oatmeal, and yak is allowed. Diabetics should consume animal protein. For cooking meat dishes, it is better to choose chicken, beef, rabbit, turkey. Permitted by-products include chicken and beef liver. A boiled egg can be consumed once a day. It is best used for making salads, i.e. in cut form. Fermented milk and dairy products must be on the table for diabetics every day. They aid digestion and saturate the body with calcium. The use of low-fat kefir, natural low-fat yogurt and cottage cheese, low-fat cow and soy milk is encouraged. The rest of the dairy food should be limited. Even though the GI of hard and processed cheeses is 0, their calorie content is dangerous for the health of people with diabetes. Fruits and vegetables are healthy raw. They can be used in the form of salads, jelly and jelly. Healthy fruits include lemon, orange, pear, apple, pomegranate, plum. Occasionally you can enjoy dried apricots, figs and prunes. Certain berries will also be helpful for diabetes. Berries such as currants, blueberries and raspberries are allowed. Of the vegetables, broccoli, onions, cucumbers, lettuce, white cabbage, tomatoes, two types of sweet peppers, and garlic are recommended for consumption. It is better to dress vegetable salads with soy or olive oil. Mushroom lovers can eat mushrooms, mushrooms, camelina and woody mushrooms. Coffee and tea are allowed for daily consumption, but sugar must be replaced with fructose. At the same time, the constant use of special sweet products sold in supermarkets is not desirable for patients with diabetes mellitus. Long-term intake of fructose in the body increases the level of cholesterol. In addition, such foods are too high in calories, and they also contribute to increased appetite.
To replenish the balance of vitamins in the body, yeast cultures are introduced into the diet.
What can you drink with diabetes?
The main danger in diabetes is carbohydrates. The amount of their intake in the body should be monitored constantly. However, it is best to get the minimum amount with food rather than liquid, so drinks for diabetics should not contain many calories. Water will help reduce the amount of calories entering the body. A full glass should be drunk every time you eat. In total, you need to drink at least 8 such servings of water a day. If desired, and to quench thirst, it is allowed to add squeezed lemon juice to the water. Fruit juice is recommended to be consumed in minimal quantities, since 1 glass of most fresh juices contains up to 30 grams of carbohydrates and about 50 calories. For example, 1 medium orange is loaded with 11 grams of carbohydrates and 2 grams of fiber, while a glass of juice contains 13 grams of carbohydrates without fiber. Milk is a storehouse of nutrients, which is why it is especially important for a diabetic menu. However, it is recommended to drink a low-fat dairy product, limiting its portion. 1 glass of milk contains 12 grams of carbohydrates. Natural black coffee is saturated with 5 grams of carbohydrates. However, it does an excellent job of stabilizing blood sugar levels. There are no restrictions on the use of coffee drinks, except for their saturation with sugar and cream. Tea is an excellent antioxidant and helps protect against the negative manifestations of diabetes. Chlorogenic acid helps to slow down the absorption of glucose. Alcohol is prohibited for consumption. When taken simultaneously with diabetic drugs, it provokes sharp jumps in sugar levels. If you have a strong desire to drink alcohol, you should avoid alcoholic beverages with added sugar. Even the smallest amount drunk should be accompanied by a good snack. Experts are divided on Diet Coke. Some advise eliminating this soda from the diet altogether, and some favor 1 can of drunk per day. In each case, consultation with the attending physician is necessary. Sweet soda should be completely excluded from the diet, since 1 bottle contains up to 10 tablespoons. Sahara. Drinking a glass of carbonated drink contributes to a sharp increase in blood sugar, blood pressure and the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system. Sometimes the use of jelly is allowed, which must be prepared according to dietary recommendations. This drink does not use starch, but oat flour. Kissel can be made from fruits and berries. The exception is raisins, which are high in glucose.
What can you not eat with diabetes? List of prohibited products.
People with diabetes should cut out any foods that increase blood sugar levels. Sugar- and starch-containing types of food are strictly prohibited. These include table sugar, sweets, rice, rye, wheat, white bread, muesli and cereals, corn, and potatoes. These products are a real poison for diabetics. Some endocrinologists allow the use of dark chocolate (in the absence of acute contraindications). But it can be eaten no more than 2 slices per day. Banned vegetables include beets, pumpkins, carrots, legumes, beans, ketchup, and fried onions as they contain easily digestible carbohydrates. Strawberries, bananas, grapes, persimmons and dates should not be added to food. Dried fruits also fall under the ban category. From dairy products, the use of whole milk, fatty yoghurts and cottage cheese, condensed milk, fatty varieties of hard and processed cheese, and cream is limited. Fatty types of meat (pork, duck, lamb), as well as any sausages, smoked meats, lard, canned food and pickles, fatty fish are excluded from the diet. Saturated broths are also prohibited. Sugary refined store-bought breakfasts increase blood sugar. An alternative is a protein omelet with vegetables or whole grain porridge. Statistics show that the number of patients with diabetes is increasing every year. Today, every 10 resident of the country suffers from this disease. And although diabetes is not a death sentence, it largely affects the quality of life and nutrition, which must be adjusted taking into account the individual characteristics of the organism.