Diabetes mellitus: treatment today, prospects for tomorrow
In Russia, one in ten has diabetes. At the same time, not everyone knows about their ailment. What is the danger of diabetes and what do doctors and scientists do to find more effective ways to treat it?
November 14 is World Diabetes Day. This is an occasion to think about how things are with its spread in Russia and in the world, how dangerous this disease is and what scientists are doing to better understand it and, therefore, improve treatment methods.
Why November 14th? The fact is that it was on this day that Frederick Grant Banting was born, who in 1922, together with Charles Herbert Best, discovered insulin – a medicine that saves the lives of people with diabetes. And it was in his honor that the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) together with the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991 established this day as a symbol of the growing incidence of diabetes in the world.
Russia: every tenth
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency, which leads to a violation of carbon metabolism and, as a result, an imbalance of all types of metabolism in the body. This is the leading cause of death from cardiovascular disease, blindness and amputation of the lower extremities.
There is insulin-dependent, or type I diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent, it is type II diabetes. Type I diabetes usually affects young people under 30 years old. One of the reasons is the development by the body of antibodies that affect pancreatic cells responsible for the synthesis of insulin. This is a chronic disease that requires constant injections of insulin.
Type II diabetes affects the older generation. In such patients, pancreatic cells produce a sufficient amount of insulin, but the body’s sensitivity to it is reduced. The main risk factors for the development of this type of diabetes are obesity and an unhealthy lifestyle. “Today, almost 10 out of 10 Russians have diabetes, but more than half of the patients are unaware of their disease,” states Ivan Dedov, president of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences and RAMS, President of the Russian Association of Endocrinologists. – According to the Russian State Register of Diabetes Patients, the prevalence of type II diabetes in Russia is 3.2%, while, according to IDF, this indicator in the world is almost 3 times higher and 8.3%, and in Russia may reach 9.7%. ”
Undoubtedly, domestic medical institutions should actively inform us about the problem of diabetes. Now the Russian Diabetes Association is puzzled by this more than others. “We want to attract public attention, talk about prevention and the need for regular monitoring of our health, especially for people at risk,” said Valentina Peterkova, president of the Russian Diabetes Association, director of the Research Institute of Pediatric Endocrinology, corresponding member of RAMS.
No insulin yet
Its timely appointment avoids the development of serious complications. Today, the most modern insulin is analog. By the mechanism of action, they are closer to human insulin, but are more safe and better tolerated compared to other types of insulin. Analogous insulins help to compensate for diabetes with a low risk of hypoglycemia. This year Russia began the production of innovative full-cycle insulin. In Orel, the Sanofi plant began to produce human genetically engineered insulin and analogues of human insulin. One and the other in forms of short and prolonged action, which is very important for patients who have built their lives in accordance with a certain duration of action of insulin, which they have been treating for many years.
And mankind, meanwhile, is waiting for the development of radically new methods of combating diabetes.
3,779,423 patients with diabetes were registered in the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2013, of which 325,743 were patients with type I diabetes and 3,453,680 were patients with type II diabetes.
Diabetes and cancer – compatible treatment
Scientists at Stanford University Medical School have discovered that the anti-cancer drug aflibercept, which prevents blood vessels from growing in the tumor and deprives it of oxygen, at the same time lowers sugar *. This was proved by experiments with mice and patient monitoring. The mechanism is this: with the introduction of the drug, the liver cells, along with the tumor cells, lack oxygen and begin to produce specific protein HIF-2 alpha as compensation. It activates the synthesis and release of the insulin receptor into the blood. And he, in turn, enhances the ability of cells to respond to insulin and increase sugar tolerance.
Light diabetes treatment
Biologists from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich) **, led by Martin Fussenegger (Martin Fussenegger) conducted experiments on diabetic mice, introducing them a gene that responds to the work of photosensitive pigment from the human retina. Then they illuminated the dwelling of the experimental animals with blue light. And even later, they held a luminous fiber to genetically modified cells. In both cases, the sugar level dropped sharply to normal levels.
Still, you need to follow a diet
Yes, any restriction is unpleasant, but in the case of diabetes, the culinary diversity should be reduced, but you can protect yourself from a large number of ailments.
For diabetes recommended ***:
1. Skim dairy products: milk, kefir, cottage cheese.
2. Vegetables: eggplant, peas, zucchini, cabbage and cauliflower, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, bell peppers, root parsley, tomatoes, rhubarb, radishes, turnips, lettuce, beets, celery, soy, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, pumpkin, beans , garlic, spinach.
3. Fruits and berries: quince, barberry, lingonberry, cherry, pear, wild strawberry, strawberry, cranberry, gooseberry, raspberry, mountain ash, all kinds of currants, apples.
4. Meat and poultry: chicken, rabbit, veal, lamb, lean pork.
5. Low-fat sea fish.
6. Bread: rye and bran (the amount of bread is not more than 150 g per day).
7. Groups: buckwheat and oat (50-60 g per day).
8. Fats: butter and vegetable oil (50-70 g, depending on body weight).
9. Soy products.