Diabetes ulcers – treatment methods: ointments, folk remedies, surgery
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and is often accompanied by various complications such as hypertension, decreased visual acuity, and circulatory disorders. Due to improper blood circulation on the body, trophic ulcers occur, which can lead to additional complications. With the disease, a gradual thinning and destruction of blood vessels occurs, which leads to necrosis of soft tissues, which causes the formation of trophic ulcers. The main reasons for the appearance of ulcers in diabetes mellitus:
- sedentary lifestyle;
- high blood sugar;
- excess weight;
- decreased immunity;
- drug abuse;
- hereditary or genetic predisposition.
Ulceration most often occurs on the lower limbs on the feet. A gait disorder leads to the formation of calluses (hyperkeratosis), which ultimately become the causes of the growth of ulcers.
Manifestations of trophic ulcers: stages
The formation of ulcers is accompanied by bleeding wounds, painful sensations and rotting of the infected area. Symptoms of the pathology are aggravated at night. In this regard, trophic ulcers are usually divided into stages or stages:
- Stage 1 . There is a decrease in the sensitivity of the lower extremities, numbness and a feeling of constriction. Susceptibility to cramps at night, especially in the evening.
- Stage 2 . The manifestation of wounds on the surface of the skin, the spread of damage to adjacent skin.
- Stage 3 . The defeat of large areas of the skin with trophic ulcers, followed by the formation of purulent wounds. The pathological process develops rapidly, forming a diabetic foot.
- Stage 4 . Trophic ulcers rapidly develop into purulent wounds that bleed. The general state of health worsens, the temperature rises, the pain sensations intensify. This condition progresses rapidly and leads to gangrene with subsequent inevitable amputation.
At the first sign, you should immediately contact a medical institution for advice and assistance. Otherwise, you can lose both limbs.
Skin ulcers in diabetes: danger
Increased sugar levels lead to an abundant flow of urine, which causes fluid loss in the body. There is general dehydration of the whole body, including the skin, which becomes dry, flaky and itchy. Disruption of the sebaceous and sweat glands provokes the development of skin infections and inflammatory processes throughout the body, including in the mouth. Possible complications:
- dermopathy – light brown scaly patches;
- necrobiosis – dense red nodules that merge with each other;
- lipodystrophy – thinning of the skin, atrophy of the fat layer;
- fungal infections;
- xanthomatosis – yellowish formations on the skin;
- boils, carbuncles;
- diabetic pemphigus;
Any damage to the skin (wounds, scratches, abrasions) has a low degree of regeneration. Healing occurs slowly and in some cases is accompanied by complications – the wounds become inflamed, suppuration and infection occur.
In advanced cases, skin ulcers can lead to the formation of necrotic masses, tuberculosis or skin cancer. Their removal in such a situation will be impossible.
Stomach ulcer in diabetes
Diabetes mellitus leads to the fact that excess hydrochloric acid affects the mucous membrane of the esophagus and stomach. In cases of penetration of bacteria of the genus Helicobacter pylori into the gastrointestinal tract , ulcers form. The development of peptic ulcer disease ( gastroparesis ) occurs gradually, gastric motility is impaired. Sometimes there is acute atony, which develops against the background of diabetic ketoacidosis . Symptoms of gastric ulcer in diabetes mellitus:
- pain in the stomach;
- feeling of heaviness;
Acute atony can lead to the development of gastric emphysema and pyloric stenosis. Pathology is accompanied by pain and lingering vomiting. The disease spreads to the entire area of the digestive system. Pathological processes affect the small intestine, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
Leg ulcers in diabetes
Due to the weakened immune system, the body of a patient with diabetes mellitus is prone to various infections and inflammations. Therefore, patients often experience damage to the nail plate with a fungal infection (mycosis). Pathology leads to the formation of leg ulcers. Wearing uncomfortable or unsuitable shoes also has an impact on the appearance of calluses and calluses . Further pressure on sore spots due to the fragility and weakening of blood vessels leads to trophic ulcers. SDS (diabetic foot syndrome) occurs due to lesions of the skin on the legs with purulent processes. Necrosis of the peripheral nerve endings occurs, which makes the patient no longer feel any painful effects on the affected areas.
The disease can lead to serious complications in the form of osteomyelitis, gangrene or partial amputation of a limb.
To detect ulcers in diabetic patients, the following types of diagnostics are used:
- visual examination – the doctor assesses the degree and area of the lesion;
- general analyzes;
- Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremities (Doppler ultrasound) – assessment of vessels for blood flow rate, degree of patency, elasticity;
- radiography (including feet);
- bacteriological culture;
- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Signs such as swelling, pain, discoloration of the skin and shape of the fingers, as well as the presence of fungal infections are the reason for seeking research. With a diabetic foot, diagnostics are carried out to determine the level of sugar in the blood and urine, cholesterol, hemoglobin and lipoproteins.
Diabetes ulcer treatment
Treatment of peptic ulcer disease occurs on the basis of examinations and the identified stage of development of the pathology. In total, there are several methods for eliminating the disease.
Insulin intake is a mandatory treatment regimen. However, it has no effect on the formation or treatment of ulcers. Therefore, additional drugs are prescribed:
- antibacterial agents;
- local anesthetic drugs – gels, creams, ointments;
- anti-infectious agents;
- elimination of concomitant nervous diseases;
- medicines designed to thin the blood and prevent blood clots.
In case of damage to the lower extremities, special fixing agents are necessarily used to facilitate the load. With a trophic stomach ulcer, various prebiotics and probiotics are prescribed to help restore the activity of the digestive tract. Antiseptic and regenerating agents help to fight skin manifestations.
For the treatment of ulcers in diabetes mellitus, physiotherapy procedures are often prescribed , which are part of a comprehensive treatment. Physiotherapy :
- laser exposure – elimination of inflammatory processes, destruction of pathogenic microorganisms;
- ultraviolet radiation;
- ozone therapy – saturation of cells with oxygen;
- Ultrasound – relieves inflammation and reduces pain;
- shock wave impact;
- magnetic therapy – elimination of pain, expansion of blood vessels;
- compresses and applications (silt, peat mud).
Additionally, bath procedures can be used in cases where ulcerative formations are not accompanied by oozing . This treatment has a beneficial effect on the nervous system and accelerates wound healing.
Surgical or surgical intervention is carried out in cases where drug treatment has not brought results. First, the ulcerative surface is cleaned to study the degree and depth of the lesion. If the pathological process affects deep layers or bones, then a skin transplant is prescribed. Removal of the infected skin surface is carried out in several ways:
- vacuum removal – pulling purulent masses from the site of injury;
- use of a catheter – removal of purulent fluid using a special device (catheter);
- partial removal of the damaged surface without disturbing the anatomical structure.
In severe cases or with gangrene, partial amputation of the limb occurs.
The use of folk remedies in conjunction with classical therapy has a positive effect on the healing process of ulcers.
- Compresses . The use of compresses significantly accelerates the regeneration of damaged tissues. To do this, use chamomile and calendula mixed with mustard. The mixture is poured with boiling water and insisted. Applied within a month.
- Essential oils . Clove oil helps relieve inflammation and promote faster wound healing. The agent is applied to cotton wool or a tampon and gently treat the damaged surface.
- Broths . To heal the ulcer, a bird cherry-based decoction is used. Sage is also a good remedy. The plant is insisted for a day, after which honey is added. It helps to avoid scarring and scars after healing.
- Other means:
- Birch ash helps to cope with the disease . It is insisted to room temperature, and then a compress is applied. After the procedure, the affected area is treated with calendula tincture. Applied for 3 weeks.
- Shilajit (10 g ) is mixed with 100 g of honey and applied to a bandage, which is applied to the wound for a day. Use every other day until recovery.
Prevention of diabetes ulcers
In diabetes mellitus, precautions must be taken to avoid the formation of trophic ulcers. To do this, examine the surface of the body, especially the lower limbs for wounds and injuries. Existing skin injuries are treated with warm water and antiseptics to prevent infection and inflammation. Shoes must be worn comfortable and comfortable. It is best to use shoes made from natural materials that have good air microcirculation.
You should also give up addictions – alcohol, smoking, drug use.
Patients with diabetes mellitus are advised to follow a diet and proper nutrition. Food should not be heavy or fatty. Regular or annual examination by doctors in audiology , endocrinology, podology and surgery is also included in the mandatory program of preventive measures. It should be remembered that at the first sign of illness, it is best to seek help from a doctor and not self-medicate .