How to understand that you are starting diabetes? Explains the endocrinologist
Endocrinologist Valentina Shutova on what diabetes mellitus is, how do the two types of disease differ from each other, and by what signs can one understand that problems begin?
endocrinologist of the highest category
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome in which there is a chronic increase in blood sugar in the human body. The disease is associated with absolute or relative insulin deficiency. Various factors can lead to this condition: hereditary and external (uncontrolled excess weight, hypertension). That is why there are many types of diabetes mellitus, and the disease can be different for everyone.
The two most common types of diabetes are types 1 and 2.
Type 2 diabetes: “age-related”
This variant is more common, usually in people over 40. Type 2 disease is associated with absolute or relative insulin deficiency (insulin resistance). This means that the body produces enough insulin, or even an excess of it, but it does not work.
Type 2 diabetes, according to the doctor, is more difficult to detect. It can be asymptomatic for a long time.
Over time, the patient may begin to bother:
- intense thirst and frequent urination;
- sleeplessness at night;
- tiredness, weakness and drowsiness during the day.
Also, the first signs of diabetes include:
- slow wound healing;
- deterioration of vision;
- episodic or persistent dizziness;
- numbness or tingling in the limbs;
With high blood glucose, the sweet environment in the body spreads everywhere. In sweating, secretion, there is more glucose everywhere. Accordingly, microbes “nest” more easily. Moreover, any inflammatory process is not localized on its own (as in a healthy body), but is aggravated. This is why boils, cuts, and mosquito bites all heal more slowly. Over time, the nutrition of the skin is disrupted, hair loss on the legs, thinning of the skin, peeling and rashes are observed …
Whether a disease occurs or not depends on a hereditary predisposition to metabolic disorders and a person’s lifestyle (his activity and nutrition). If there is a predisposition to illness, as well as obesity or hypertension, but a person does not control blood pressure and does not fight overweight, then diabetes will surely occur. Moreover, in a severe form.
– About 80-85% of my type 2 diabetes patients are obese.
The risk of developing type 2 disease is also in women who give birth to a child weighing more than 4-4.5 kilograms. If the baby was born with a weight of less than 2 kilograms 800 grams, then after 40 years, the person also has a risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
In general, the disease does not depend on gender. Both men and women are ill. It’s just that the fair sex more often go to the doctor, and men pull, aggravating the condition.
The number of viral infections that weaken the immune system and the number of stress also matter.
Prevention can be:
- Walking – 30-40 minutes a day.
- Home gymnastics
- Water procedures
As a preventive measure for the disease, attention should be paid to nutrition. It should be healthy and include plant fiber. Fiber is found in bran, fresh vegetables, and wholemeal bread. Such nutrition will help to significantly reduce insulin resistance.
In addition, it is important to reduce your intake of simple carbohydrates (fruits, rolls, candy), which give a rapid rise in blood sugar. It is undesirable to eat berries (cherries, strawberries) in the afternoon. It is better to consume such food in the morning.
Type 1 diabetes: “youth”
Type 1 disease, or “diabetes of the young” (and children), differs in that it is characterized by an absolute deficiency of insulin. The patient’s insular apparatus does not work well or does not work at all. It is an autoimmune disease that is independent of lifestyle. Rather, from the state of the immune system and the number of viral infections. This type of diabetes is seasonal. Outbreaks most often occur in the autumn-winter period, when the immune system is weakened.
The disease usually develops abruptly. The acid-base composition of the blood changes. People often even lose weight.
Against the background of complete health, the following signs may appear:
- thirst, consumption of large amounts of water. Accordingly, the volume of excreted urine also increases (polyuria);
- weight loss;
- a gradual decrease in appetite;
- severe tiredness and weakness;
- itchy skin;
- persistent headaches;
- increased blood pressure;
- visual impairment.
– With regard to nutrition for type 1 diabetes, it is mandatory to calculate the amount of carbohydrates eaten. This is necessary for the correct calculation of insulin, which is injected into the patient’s body. Such manipulations are performed by the doctor, explaining everything to each specific patient.
On the other hand, similar phenomena often develop in other pathologies, therefore, the doctor, and not the patient himself, should deal with the diagnosis and definition of the type of diabetes.