Increased blood sugar: the reasons for the child, signs, tests and their decoding
Glucose is considered one of the most important indicators of the blood of every person. At least once a year, it is necessary to take a blood sugar test.
It can be done on an outpatient basis or at home using a device called a glucometer.
And when the indicators are not normal, then it is necessary to determine the causes of high blood sugar in the child in order to take immediate action. After all, the level of glucose in the blood is an indicator of health and metabolic processes in the body. Parents should know the norm of sugar and the prohibitions on certain foods that can provoke such changes in the body.
For example, if this indicator decreases or increases, then pathological processes begin to develop in the organs, provoking dangerous diseases, including diabetes mellitus. There are a variety of reasons for an increase in blood sugar in a child, the main ones are presented below.
The main reasons for the rise in sugar
If, after the tests, an increased blood sugar in the child is detected, the reasons for it can be very different.
The most harmless of them is the wrong preparation for the analysis, for example, the baby ate something in the morning before the tests, or ate a lot of sweets in the evening.
Also, the reason why blood sugar rises in children is physical, emotional stress, which took place a day or two before delivery.
In addition, sugar rises with the development of diseases of the glands that are responsible for the production of hormones – this is the pancreas, thyroid, adrenal or pituitary glands. Certain types of medications can also raise or lower glucose levels.
Obesity is the most common cause of high blood sugar in children, especially in the second and third stages. There may still be a high sugar in a child for reasons, it lies in insufficient water intake or long fasting, due to the development of diseases of the digestive system, chronic diseases, after poisoning with chloroform, arsenic.
It is important to know that a decrease in sugar, as well as an increase in it, is also dangerous for the baby, because such an indicator can lead to a sudden loss of consciousness and even in rare cases ends in a hypoglycemic coma.
To prevent this, parents must monitor the condition of the child.
Usually, a sharp decrease in glucose begins with the fact that the baby asks for sweets, then shows sudden activity, but soon sweats, becomes pale and faints. First aid in this situation is intravenous glucose. After the child has come to his senses, it is advisable for him to eat a sweet fruit, for example, a peach, pear or apple.
When children have high blood sugar, the causes, like the indicators, can be different, based on age. With increased rates, the doctor makes a decision about prevention or treatment. At risk of developing diabetes are children whose parents or one has the disease. If both are sick, then there is a 30% chance of transmitting the diagnosis to the baby, if one parent is sick, then the probability decreases to 10%. When twins are born, then after detecting high sugar in one, in the second it will also be high.
Symptoms and Signs
To know why blood sugar rises in children, it is necessary to understand the causes of the disease and its symptoms. After all, if you consult a doctor in time, the development of dangerous diseases can be easily prevented.
If the blood glucose level of a child has increased, then the main symptoms may be:
• the baby is constantly thirsty, he also has frequent urination . Such conditions are explained by the fact that high sugar disrupts the functioning of the kidneys, they can no longer quickly absorb glucose, so it remains in the urine. A high rate attracts more water, so the volume of urine increases;
• a sharp decrease in weight . This process begins due to malfunctions of the pancreas, which is damaged by a virus. She is no longer able to produce enough insulin for the body to absorb sugar normally. As a result, the baby loses weight, he has a poor appetite;
• hereditary factor . Of course, parents of diabetics are likely to have sick children, but in most cases, children are born healthy. Because of this statement, some parents shield babies from eating many foods, but they make a big mistake. Indeed, as a result of such actions, children do not receive a sufficient amount of nutrients and vitamins, their physical and emotional development is disrupted. Therefore, the right decision is a trip to the doctor, rather than constant prohibitions. After all, the reasons for an increase in blood sugar in a child can indicate not only nutrition or hereditary factors, but also stress, depression.
When, after passing the tests, it became clear that the blood sugar was elevated, the treatment was always the same.
After the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, the doctor prescribes treatment, which consists of three stages: taking medications, adhering to a diet and daily monitoring of sugar levels.
Determining the type of diabetes is also becoming an important nuance in treatment.
For example, type 1 diabetes requires a dose adjustment of medications, as serious complications, such as hypoglycemic state or diabetic coma, can develop in the body due to improper or long-term administration of medications.
Parents should limit their child’s intake of high-calorie foods rich in carbohydrates. You can not eat sweets, cakes, buns, pastries, chocolate, jam, dried fruits, because these products contain a large amount of glucose, which quickly enters the bloodstream.
Regardless of the reason for the increase in blood sugar in children and the development of diabetes, their diet should always include: tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkin, zucchini, greens.
A sick child should only eat lean meat, bran bread, fish, sour fruits, dairy products and berries. You can replace sugar in the diet with xylitol, but not more than 30 grams per day.
Fructose is taken with extreme caution. It is better to exclude honey, since many doctors oppose this product for diabetes.
In order for parents to control the child’s blood sugar every day, it is necessary to buy a glucometer. Sugar is measured at least 4 times a day, all results should be recorded in a notebook so that they can then be presented to the doctor. You need to know that when using this device there may be some inaccuracies, so you need to periodically donate blood for sugar in your clinic.
Blood glucose meter
The test strips supplied with the instrument must not be stored outdoors as they quickly deteriorate as a result of external chemical reactions. When the causes of high blood sugar in a child indicate obesity, then, in addition to treatment, parents should monitor the child’s physical condition, walk with him more, and engage in light sports exercises. For example, you can practice dancing, which can help treat type 2 diabetes.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus is prescribed only by an endocrinologist or pediatrician, he also gives recommendations on nutrition, rest and sleep, so any independent actions are prohibited.
How to get tested
To identify high blood sugar in a child, you need to contact the clinic, where the baby donates blood.
Usually it is taken from a finger, but it can be taken from a vein if several tests are done.
If blood is taken from infants for analysis, then it can be taken from the toe and heel.
You shouldn’t eat anything before testing. This nuance is explained by the fact that after eating food in the human intestine, complex carbohydrates break down and form simple monosugar, which are absorbed into the blood.
If a person is healthy, then 2 hours after a meal, only glucose circulates in the blood. That is why, in order to determine the blood sugar level, the analysis is prescribed in the morning, that is, before breakfast.
In order for the indicators to be really correct, the child should not drink the last 10-12 hours and eat any food before the analysis. He must pass the analysis in a calm state, that is, he must not engage in active exercises before the clinic.
Many parents do not know why their child has high blood sugar and are trying to find out more useful information in order to prevent the development of diabetes mellitus.
Therefore, it will not be superfluous to know that sugar indicators in children are much lower than in adults.
For example, in infants, the normal rate is 2.8-4.4 mmol / l.
In preschool children, the permissible level shows up to 5 mmol / l. In schoolchildren, the norm increases to 5.5 mmol / l, and in adolescent children, sugar reaches 5.83 mmol / l.
This increase is explained by the fact that a newborn child has very low blood sugar due to the peculiarities of his metabolic processes. With age, the needs of the baby’s body increase, so the glucose level also increases.
In some cases, it happens that the child’s sugar rises or falls sharply, and then recovers again. This process is explained by the fact that pathologies have developed in the child’s body. In any case, deviations from normal values cannot be ignored, so you need to be monitored by a doctor.