Sugar in urine, what it means, and what are the norms for adults
Sugar in urine is present in the analyzes of any, even the healthiest person, but its concentration is quite insignificant and is 0.06-0.08 units. As a rule, if sugar in the urine is observed within such limits, then pathologies are not diagnosed.
The kidneys help maintain the required amount of glucose in the blood, remove toxins and toxic substances from the human body. This circumstance is based on the fact that all sugar is filtered through the renal membrane of the glomeruli, and then it is already absorbed back into the human body in the kidney tubules.
The function of the kidneys is to return glucose to the bloodstream, but in the required amount for the human body. All this leads to the fact that if a person is healthy, kidney function is not impaired, then sugar will not be found in urine, or it will be observed in a small concentration.
Usually, when a small normal level of sugar in the urine is detected, they talk about traces of sugar in the urine, and it is usually not indicated. But there are situations and the opposite, when the presence of sugar in the urine exceeds the permissible content.
It is worth figuring out whether sugar in urine is dangerous for adults and children, and what to do if it is found by the attending physician, what treatment is needed? Also, you need to consider what causes sugar in urine in diabetes mellitus?
What does renal threshold mean?
It is worth noting that the sugar content in urine may be exceeded if the patient has a high renal threshold, or the filtration in the kidneys is impaired, or pathological processes occur in the internal organs, as a result of which the reabsorption function has decreased.
In a healthy person, such a threshold is 9-10 mmol / l, and in a child 10-12 mmol / l. In people over 50 years of age, the rates are much lower and can vary significantly.
With kidney disease, which occurs against the background of damage to the renal tubules, which are responsible for the return of glucose to the bloodstream, the renal threshold is significantly reduced, therefore, the level of sugar in the urine will be increased.
With the renal form of diabetes, blood sugar may be normal and not exceed the permissible limits, but in the urine it will increase. When sugar is excreted from the body by means of urine, in medicine, this condition will be called glycosuria.
To determine its value, it is necessary to pass a urinalysis for glucose, while strictly adhering to certain rules for collecting biological fluid. Glycosuria occurs with an increase in blood sugar, if its concentration exceeds the renal threshold of more than 10 units.
It should be noted that this condition can develop in two ways. With an increased blood sugar level in the patient’s body with diabetes, as well as when the amount of glucose in the patient’s blood is low.
The norm of sugar in urine in men and women is no different, that is, such indicators do not depend on the sex of the person, but can vary depending on age. In patients over 50, the norm will be slightly lower than in a patient 40 years old.
The norm is considered to be the absence of sugar in the urine, or the limit of 1.7 units. This indicator is the upper limit, stepping over which, one can suspect the presence of a certain pathology.
Reasons for the increase
So, knowing what the name of such a pathology is, and what it means, it is necessary to consider the reasons that can lead to this condition, as a result of which sugar appears in the urine of women and men.
It is advisable to say that physiological glycosuria can occur in a healthy person, and in this case it has a temporary character, is not a sign of any pathology, and there is no need to treat such a condition.
The reasons for this state lie in the external environment under the influence of external factors. For example, a person got into a severe stressful situation, experienced nervous tension, abused coffee drinks, fatty foods.
In medical practice, it is customary to distinguish several types of physiological glycosuria:
- Alimentary character. It is based on the abuse of food enriched with carbohydrates, as a result of which glucose rises in a person’s blood, and then it is observed in his urine.
- Emotional in nature. In this situation, human emotions provoke a temporary failure in the body, which leads to glycosuria.
- During pregnancy. As a rule, during the period of bearing a child, a woman does not have glucose in the urine, but since the body functions with a double load, the kidneys may not be able to cope with the task, so some of the sugar can penetrate into the urine.
In type 2 diabetes, glucose is often found in the urine. The doctors’ comments indicate that such a condition cannot be ignored, as it can lead to serious complications in the future, and concomitant diseases.
Since the sugar in the body fluid can be a harbinger of serious illness. As a rule, if traces of sugar in urine were found in a diabetic, then in the blood its values will be significantly lower. And this symptomatology characterizes an insulin-dependent person.
In medicine, many more pathologies stand out that can lead to a malfunction in the body – hyperthyroidism, a latent form of diabetes mellitus, impaired liver function and others.
Symptoms of pathology
As mentioned above, in some cases, glycosuria can be temporary, in some cases it is observed for several days, and then everything returns to normal, and all processes in the body are stabilized.
Thus, if a single increase in glucose in the urine of a patient was detected, then you should not worry, this is normal for a person, and does not indicate any abnormalities in the body.
In a situation where glucose is steadily increased, it is worth thinking about the reason for this condition, in addition, against the background of such a pathology, certain symptoms are observed that indicate a failure in the human body:
- The patient is constantly thirsty.
- A sharp decrease in body weight.
- Frequent trips to the toilet.
- In the genital area, irritation and itching appear.
- A feeling of chronic fatigue appears.
- The skin becomes dry.
It is worth noting that in the presence of glucose in urine, urine smells completely different. She may have a specific sweetish smell. It often happens that against the background of glucose in the biological fluid of a person, protein is still observed, as well as ketone bodies (acetone in the blood is also detected). This symbiosis can lead to urine stinking.
Therefore, if the indicators of sugar in the urine are higher than the permissible limit, it is imperative to establish the causes of this condition, undergo examinations and receive appropriate treatment.
What is the risk of glucose in urine?
First of all, high sugar in the urine helps to suspect a pathology, and as soon as possible to establish the true causes of this condition. Undoubtedly, if the sugar levels in the urine are high, then the doctor necessarily prescribes a second analysis.
It is possible that recently the patient had severe stress or nervous tension, as a result of which a temporary failure occurred in the body, affecting the final results of the laboratory study.
As for the likelihood of diabetes mellitus, there is a certain category of people whose risk of developing pathology is several times higher than that of other patients. This category includes people:
- People are 30-40 years old.
- Elderly patients over 65 years old.
- Alcohol abusers.
The diet of a person is also of great importance. Practice shows that we are what we eat. And fatty, salty, spicy, sweet food negatively affects health, and over time can increase sugar in urine, lead to severe concomitant diseases.
In children, high urine sugar rates are also often detected. And this circumstance may indicate that the second type of diabetes mellitus is developing, or, the children ate sweets the day before.
In any case, with such analysis results, the doctor will recommend repeating this analysis to find out if it was temporary, or if problems are brewing in the child’s body.
How do you lower the performance?
Knowing what sugar in urine means, and what is the name of such a condition in a patient in medicine, and, in general, why it can appear, it is necessary to figure out how to remove it from the human body?
The first thing to do in such a situation is to identify the root cause of such a state, and direct all efforts to eliminate it. If the reasons lie in the identified diabetes mellitus, then the activities may include many points.
Firstly, it is recommended to exclude sweets, pastry pastries, carbonated and alcoholic drinks from your diet. In general, it is advisable to exclude all foods that contain granulated sugar.
Secondly, you need to give up the consumption of simple carbohydrates, switch to a balanced and rational diet, eat not two or three times a day, but 5-6 times, and only in small portions of 300 grams. Diet 5 table will tell you more about the menu .
Thirdly, you need to bring optimal physical activity into your life. When it comes to playing sports, you should discuss this with your doctor. But daily walks in the fresh air will help remove sugar from urine, and return to normal health.
In any case, the situation requires resolution, and no matter how much the patient wants to, the problem will not get rid of itself. You need to see a doctor, find the root causes of glucose in the urine, and throw all your strength into eliminating it.