What does diffuse changes in the liver and pancreas mean?
Diffuse changes in the parenchyma of the liver and pancreas have become a common pathology. Such a pathological disorder requires the urgent implementation of therapeutic measures. A course of adequate therapy is able to save the patient from health problems in 90% of cases. Timely performed medical procedures restore and ensure the safety of the organ.
Diffuse changes in the liver and pancreas are in the fact that the patrol process occurs, resulting in a change in the structure of cells or individual elements in the structure of the affected organ or tissue.
It is very often possible to observe the development of hepatosplenomegaly, in which there is an increase in the linear dimensions of the liver and spleen, which is associated with the inertial relationship and the general pathway through which the outflow of venous blood is carried out. Under the influence of various pathological factors, the development of hepatomegaly is observed, which is an increase in the linear volumes of the liver.
The degree of effectiveness of the therapeutic measures carried out depends on the reasons that provoked the appearance of pathological disorders, the latter can be identified by clinical and instrumental diagnostic methods.
Forms of pathogenesis, causes and factors of their appearance
The liver and pancreas are organs made up of highly specialized tissues. They are connected by communication through the excretory ducts and are capable of mutual influence. A failure in the functioning of one disrupts the work of the other.
Diffuse pathological disorders represent pathologies in tissue structures. They lose their normal density, geometry and linear parameters.
In the presence of a pathogenic state, self-medication is prohibited, since improper implementation of therapeutic measures can provoke a deterioration in the condition and cause serious consequences for the whole organism.
The main reasons for the appearance of deviations are:
- disturbances in metabolic processes;
- the development of infectious diseases;
- the occurrence of inflammation;
The presence of pancreatitis, exposure to stressful situations, uncontrolled use of alcoholic beverages, drug addiction can provoke the appearance of pathological changes.
Deformation of tissues can be the result of cholecystitis, in which the development of inflammation of the gallbladder is observed.
Pathologies can provoke many pathologies – cirrhosis, hepatitis, hepatosis, diabetes mellitus and some others.
Under the influence of some negative factors, the development of steatosis is observed, which is the formation of fatty deposits in the functional parenchyma of the liver.
The appearance of pathology in the pancreas leads to a disruption of its functions, which leads to malfunctions of both the exocrine and endocrine parts. Disorders in the functionality of the endocrine part provoke a deterioration in digestion and insufficient production of digestive enzymes, and disruptions in the functioning of the endocrine part lead to disruptions in the production of insulin, a hormone that affects the ability to assimilate simple sugars by insulin-dependent tissues, resulting in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM).
With diffuse changes, an increased progression of diabetes of both the first and second types is revealed, which contributes to the deterioration of the condition of not only individual organs or their systems, but also the whole organism.
A vicious circle arises – pathological processes in the tissues of these organs provoke the development of ailments that can accelerate the progression of pathology.
Typical symptoms of disorders
There is a whole spectrum of signs that suggest the presence of pathology leading to tissue dystrophy.
The development of disorders is accompanied by the appearance of pain and discomfort in the right side. The emergence of discomfort is accompanied by the provision of increased physical exertion on the patient. In addition, this condition can be the result of eating large amounts of food rich in fat.
Painful sensations become permanent, their intensity may increase under the influence of irritating factors.
Signs of degenerative processes can manifest themselves in any age group, sometimes such manifestations are detected in pediatric patients.
The main symptoms of the development of a pathological condition are:
- Feeling nauseous for no reason.
- Decreased appetite.
- Eructation with bitterness after eating.
- Frequent heartburn.
- Recurrent vomiting.
- Significant weakening.
- Rapid fatigue when exercising on a person.
- The appearance of frequent headaches and migraines.
In the male population, pathological changes can provoke the appearance of problems with sexual function. With the development of such a violation in women, a hormonal failure occurs. In the presence of diabetes, hormonal imbalance leads to an exacerbation of the disease, which significantly affects dystrophic changes in the parenchyma of the liver and pancreas.
In patients suffering from such a disorder, a discoloration of the skin and the whites of the eyes is detected. Sometimes with prolonged development of the disease, darkening of urine and discoloration of feces are detected.
Forms of pathological changes in the parenchyma
There are several types of the disease. All types of lesions can be divided into three groups.
The first group is minor lesions. This form of pathology is common among the middle-aged population. Most often, such forms of violation occur at different stages of hepatitis, provoking such failures are unfavorable factors.
The second group – lesions of the parenchyma of moderate severity, occur when poisoning with the frequent use of alcoholic beverages and the use of harmful food products. The intake of vitamin complexes, as well as the transition to the use of natural food with the rejection of semi-finished products, helps to correct the situation.
The third group – severe lesions, are observed in patients with diabetes mellitus. Quite often occur in the presence of obesity and tumors in humans.
There are several types of parenchymal changes. Doctors distinguish the following types:
Each type has its own characteristic reasons for the formation of changes.
Diffuse forms of pancreatic pathology are manifested:
- Moderate increase in parenchyma density. This pathology is caused by the occurrence of acute pancreatitis in a patient. This form is accompanied by tissue lysis produced by digestive enzymes. When conducting ultrasound, an increase in size is observed, the pathology is accompanied by the appearance of swelling of the walls.
- By reducing the thickness of the functional tissue, the disorder develops if the patient has chronic pancreatitis. The causes of such phenomena are considered to be a violation of the gastrointestinal tract.
In addition, lipomatosis may occur. This form of pathology is caused by the appearance of a fatty layer.
Regardless of the form and type of ailment, at the first suspicion, an appeal to the attending physician is required. Only a full-fledged medical examination can clarify the cause of the pathological processes leading to tissue deformation.
Methods for diagnosing pathology
Before prescribing a timely course of adequate treatment, the doctor carries out a series of examinations in order to make an accurate diagnosis and identify all the causes that led to the disease.
The main place in the diagnosis is given to ultrasound examination of the state of the liver and pancreas.
There are a number of echoes by which the diagnosis of the disease is carried out.
The main indicators determined by ultrasound, which the attending physician is guided by when assessing the patient’s condition, are the following:
- reduced density of the structure of the functional parenchyma – this sign indicates heterogeneity, an increase in size is recorded, most often the pathological process is provoked by inflammation;
- underestimated echo density – there are no changes in size, and such a deviation is caused by the course of chronic pancreatitis;
- increased echogenicity – compaction of the tissue structure is recorded, the walls are replaced by fatty deposits;
- echoscopic modifications – such a violation indicates the presence of a high density of tissue structures;
- the presence of echographic abnormalities is characterized by compaction of the parenchyma, in addition, hyperechogenicity is recorded, the size of the organ when registering such a parameter can be either reduced or within the normal range;
- diffuse dystrophic abnormalities occur due to the development of fatty infiltration.
In a healthy person, the echogenicity of the pancreas and liver are very similar and coincide with those of the spleen. All parts must be free from abnormalities. Under the influence of provoking factors, their modification occurs, which is revealed during the ultrasound examination. When carrying out diagnostics in a normal state of the pancreas, its structure should be uniform.
In addition to ultrasound, a whole range of studies is being carried out, which include:
- A blood test to identify signs of inflammation in the patient.
- Fluoroscopic examination.
- Biochemical analysis of blood.
- Analysis of urine and feces.
- Punctate biopsy.
- Analysis for tumor markers in case of suspicion of an oncological process.
- CT and magnetic resonance imaging.
After carrying out the entire complex of medical examinations and identifying the true picture of the patient’s health, the doctor prescribes an appropriate course of therapeutic measures, taking into account the results obtained during the examination.
Methods of therapy and prevention of pathology
The basic component of therapy is adherence to dietary nutrition. It is necessary to exclude alcoholic and carbonated drinks from the diet, and to reduce the consumption of fried, spicy and fatty foods.
For the period of the therapeutic measures, you should stop taking hepatotoxic drugs. In addition, it is forbidden to vaccinate, it is advisable to abandon the treatment of existing pathologies in the work of the digestive system.
The dietary ration is strict and is prescribed in accordance with the presence of intolerance to certain foods and the possible manifestation of allergic reactions in the patient to some components of the diet.
A special role is played by the normalization of the bacterial flora of the large and small intestines. For this purpose, the patient is prescribed a course of taking antibacterial medications and enzyme agents.
The following are used as antibacterial drugs:
Enzyme preparations include drugs such as Festal and Pancreatin. Bifidumbacterin and Bifiform are used as means of normalizing the intestinal microflora.
Essentiale and Phosphogliv are used to protect hepatocytes from the negative effects of various factors.
The duration of the treatment course usually varies from three weeks to one month.
To reduce the increased tone, antispasmodic drugs No-shpa and Papaverine hydrochloride are prescribed.
If diabetes mellitus is a provocateur of the appearance of pathology in the tissues, it is recommended to strictly follow the diet and take drugs whose action is aimed at normalizing the glucose level, such as drugs from the group of biguanides, glinides, thiazolidinediones. The use of these medicines helps to eliminate the negative factor in the form of increased blood glucose levels.
In addition, traditional medicine made from medicinal herbs can be used at home as additional components of therapy. The use of such drugs allows you to quickly get rid of pathology and normalize work. In addition, medicines prepared according to folk recipes contribute to the long-term stabilization of sugar levels, which has a positive effect on the condition and does not cause the progression of the pathological process.
To normalize the condition, it is recommended to take a decoction of chicory, plum juice, pumpkin with honey, a variety of herbal infusions. A good way to normalize the condition is to take one tablespoon of pumpkin or olive oil daily before meals.