Coma for diabetes

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Coma for diabetes

Comas in diabetes are extremely serious conditions that are complications of diabetes. His life depends on how quickly such a patient will be helped. Therefore, every patient with diabetes should know about what types of lumps can occur with this disease, what are their main symptoms and first aid. The relatives of the patient should also know about what acute complications of diabetes are possible. After all, they may have to provide emergency care before the doctors arrive.  

What is a coma

Generally, coma  – This is an acute developing very serious condition, which is accompanied by the oppression of all major life functions. The weakening of the intensity of the central nervous system is manifested by loss of consciousness, reactions to external stimuli, reflexes. There is also respiratory depression, a marked decrease in its frequency is noted. In case the patient cannot breathe on his own, doctors connect him to a ventilator. The decrease in the efficiency of the cardiovascular system is manifested by a decrease in heart rate and a drop in blood pressure. To correct this condition, doctors begin the continuous administration of drugs that raise blood pressure and pulse to normal numbers. There is also a loss of control over urination, bowel movements. Without timely treatment, such a patient dies.

Types of coma that develop in patients with diabetes

Coma in diabetes, unfortunately, is not so rare. Especially often they occur in patients with type 1 diabetes. There are 4 main types of com:

Ketoacidotic coma

It occurs due to the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood. This happens when the level of glucose in the blood is very high. Most often this occurs in two cases:

  • The patient does not know about the disease and does not receive treatment. Quite often, young people are admitted to a hospital with a ketoacidotic coma, and there they are first diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
  • Doses of insulin, the injection of which makes the patient sick, are insufficient. Either a specific drug is not suitable for the patient.

Ketoacidotic coma can be suspected by the pungent smell of acetone in the exhaled sick air.

Hypoglycemic coma

It occurs with a rapid drop in blood sugar. Diabetics with experience, especially for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, are more difficult to tolerate low blood sugar than high. Before a coma, the patient usually has a state of hypoglycemia – he experiences hunger, weakness, dizziness. The main causes of the hypoglycemic state are as follows: 

  • The patient made an injection of insulin, but did not have time to eat.
  • The patient was actively involved in sports, and did not eat for a long time.
  • The patient is prescribed too high doses of hypoglycemic agents.

It is easy to help a diabetic who is experiencing a hypoglycemic state – he needs to be given some kind of carbohydrate product: sweet tea, a piece of sugar or bread. In case of loss of consciousness, the patient is injected with an intravenous glucose solution and immediately delivered to the hospital.

Hyperosmolar, lactic acidosis coma is much less common. They are more typical for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Coma in diabetes is an extremely serious condition. In case of loss of consciousness of a patient with diabetes, it is necessary to call an ambulance as soon as possible.

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