Diab insipidus is
Diabetes insipidus or diabetes insipidus is a disease associated with impaired production of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It is characterized by frequent urination, the production of a large volume of urine. This disease does not apply to diabetes.
The body is equipped with a complex control system for the contained fluid, its volume and composition. If a person drinks little water or sweats heavily, the body gives alarms and the kidneys produce less urine. This should be normal. Such a protective property is necessary to prevent dehydration. Antidiuretic hormone is produced by the hypothalamus. Having reached the kidneys, vasopressin increases the reabsorption of fluid, the volume of urine decreases, and its concentration rises. But sometimes in this system of water exchange something goes wrong and diuresis increases.
Causes of Diabetes
The cause of diabetes insipidus is more often damage to the hypothalamus, where vasopressin is produced, or the pituitary gland, where this hormone accumulates and is stored. Damage can be mechanical, for example, with traumatic brain injury. Some parts of the brain may not work properly due to compression by an intracranial tumor. Damage is also caused by diseases such as encephalitis, meningitis, histocytosis, certain kidney diseases. Neurosurgery can cause diabetes insipidus. Statistics show that every fifth case of diagnosed diabetes is associated with unsuccessful surgical treatment of diseases of the nervous system and is its complication. Alcohol depresses the production of antidiuretic hormone, it quickly penetrates the brain and is not removed from it for a long time. Therefore, with chronic drinking, diabetes often develops.
Symptoms of diabetes insipidus
The characteristic distinguishing features of this disease include increased, increased urination with an increase in the amount of fluid released. The urine has a pale yellow tint or is not at all colored. The second main symptom is a strong constant thirst. A person, depending on the severity of the disease, can drink up to 40 liters of water per day! He constantly needs to compensate for fluid loss in order to avoid dehydration. Water removal is very rapid. Other related symptoms may appear due to this. Blood pressure is often below normal. Most of the nutrients are excreted from the body, which leads to a variety of consequences. A lack of calcium, for example, affects the density of bone tissue, increases the likelihood of fractures in the fall. Signs of iron deficiency anemia are frequent.
The patient’s appetite decreases, nervous excitability increases. A person quickly gets tired, weight begins to gradually decrease. Complaints of frequent upset stomach and intestines, heartaches, dry skin and peeling are possible.
Diagnostics for diabetes insipidus
Despite the pronounced symptoms, it is impossible to make an accurate diagnosis without some analyzes. Suspicion of this disease occurs when the main, and sometimes the only, complaint of the patient is rapid urination with normal or increased volume of urine. First, the patient will be sent for analysis to find out the level of glucose in the blood. This is necessary to differentiate the disease from diabetes. The fact is that increased urination is observed in both cases. A blood test can give an idea of the level changes in many electrolytes.
If the clinical picture and blood sugar test are not enough to make a diagnosis, another diagnostic method can be used. Its essence lies in limiting the amount of fluid consumed, determining the electrolyte content in the blood, and regular measurement of urine volume and body weight. Such a diagnostic test is carried out in a hospital so that the patient is under the supervision of a doctor and nursing staff. Fluid restriction can lead to dehydration. After the patient has low blood pressure, and body weight decreases by about 3-5 kg (more than 5%), he is injected with the hormone vasopressin. Diabetes insipidus is confirmed if, soon after the injection, urination, pressure, and the work of the cardiovascular system return to normal.
Diabetes mellitus treats better than diabetes. With a mild form of the disease, the doctor prescribes drugs that stimulate the production of antidiuretic hormone or replace it. Vasopressin is prescribed and taken only by prescription from your doctor. The dosage for each patient is individual. An overdose of the drug can lead to consequences such as swelling, the accumulation of fluid in the tissues. In severe cases, this method does not always help. If the disease is caused by a tumor, then surgical treatment in combination with medication may be required. In the case when the disease is caused by a nephrogenic, renal impairment, treatment with diuretics and anti-inflammatory drugs of non-steroidal origin is indicated. With a pronounced form of diabetes insipidus, 3 groups can be disabled, because a person loses normal performance, and replacement therapy is required for life. The presence of this disease in children does not give a favorable prognosis and is difficult to treat. Fortunately, the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus is rare. This disease occurs in approximately three out of a hundred thousand people. There are cases when such a diagnosis is made to pregnant women.
In this case, do not worry, the problem will disappear after childbirth by itself as unexpectedly as it appeared. This may be due to a natural increase in the volume of circulating blood and urine output. The need for a pregnant woman to drink increases and to a certain extent this is a variant of the norm.