Diabetes blood sugar limit
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease in which blood sugar levels rise. Often, diabetologists are asked what is the maximum blood sugar level in diabetes?
According to experts, this question is formulated incorrectly. Diabetes can occur in different ways, and there are several types of the disease. The glycemic index against the background of diabetes can vary in the range of 5.5-13 mmol / l, and sometimes the sugar level rises up to 20 mmol / l.
Consider what are the causes of hypo- and hyperglycemia, and also find out how to take tests, and how to restore the normal functioning of the endocrine system.
Normal and diabetes sugar levels
A sugar test allows you to identify diabetes and other endocrine pathologies in the early stages. Blood is taken either from the finger or from a vein. An analysis is made on an empty stomach.
There are two pathological conditions – hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. In the first case, it is a low level of glycemia, and in the second, on the contrary, an increased level of blood sugar.
Normal glycemia values are shown in the table.
|Level.||With diabetes.||Healthy people.|
|On an empty stomach.||6.6-8.5 mmol / L.||3.3-6.3 mmol / L.|
|1-2 hours after a meal.||Over 10 mmol / l.||Not more than 7 mmol / L.|
|The level of glycated hemoglobin.||6.6-7%||4.5-5.4%.|
During pregnancy, sugar levels may fluctuate. There are cases that women develop a so-called gestational diabetes during the period of bearing a child. This disease is not always chronic, and can resolve itself after labor.
And what is the blood sugar limit for diabetes? According to doctors, in a diabetic, the glycemic index directly depends on the severity of the disease. There are 4 stages of diabetes:
- First degree. The amount of sugar in the blood is about 6.6-7 mmol / l. In this case, the rate of glycated hemoglobin and proteinuria is within normal limits. The first stage of diabetes is quite compensable.
- Second degree. It is characterized by partial compensation. The patient has abnormalities in the functioning of the CCC, vision, and kidneys. The glycemia level is 7-10 mmol / L. The glycated hemoglobin index is increased, but slightly.
- Third degree. The disease progresses, disturbances in the work of the organs of vision, heart, blood vessels, central nervous system are often observed. Blood sugar is 13-14 mmol / L. The ailment is practically indemnifiable. The level of glycated hemoglobin is significantly increased.
- Fourth degree. The glycemic index is critical – about 15-25 mmol / l. Insulin therapy and hypoglycemic tablets practically do not help, acute disorders in the functioning of the CCC, central nervous system and genitourinary system develop. The rate of glycated hemoglobin is significantly increased.
Blood sugar is also directly related to the type of diabetes. With type 1 diabetes, the glycemic index is significantly higher than with type 2 diabetes.
How to prepare for blood donation for sugar?
You can take the analysis either in the clinic or at home. To identify the indicator of glycemia at home, you will need a specialized device – an electrochemical glucometer. It’s easy to use.
You must first wash your hands with warm water, then pierce your finger with a lancet, then place a drop of blood on a test strip and wait for the result. The study is carried out in just 5 minutes. Note that the analysis using a glucometer is not always accurate, since the test strips of the device can be oxidized, and the product itself has a certain error.
It is much better to take a blood test from a vein or finger in the clinic. The delivery of biomaterial is necessary in the morning on an empty stomach. The patient is recommended:
- 2-3 days before blood donation, refuse to take alcoholic beverages, since alcohol reduces glycemia.
- Do not eat food on the day of analysis. Ideally, give up food 8 hours before blood donation.
- Do not brush your teeth on the day of the sugar intake. The fact is that many pastes contain glucose, which can increase the level of glycemia.
- On the eve of the study, avoid stress and increased physical exertion.
- Do not use chewing gum, as it may contain sugar.
Also, on the day of the blood test, you should not use insulin or hypoglycemic drugs.
The minimum acceptable blood sugar level in a healthy person is 3.3 mmol / L. If the sugar concentration is lower, then we are talking about a condition such as hypoglycemia. It is extremely life threatening.
If you do not stabilize the glycemic index, then a hypoglycemic coma develops. This condition can even be fatal. There are a lot of reasons why hypoglycemia develops.
The condition can be triggered by:
- Alcohol or food poisoning.
- Digestive system diseases. In childhood and in adulthood and in old age, hypoglycemia often develops due to pancreatitis, enteritis, and acute gastritis.
- A tough diet. If a person consumes less than 1000 kilocalories per day, then the rate of glycemia drops sharply.
- Pathology of the liver.
- Pathologies of the central nervous system.
- Overdose of drugs. If a person injects insulin or takes hypoglycemic pills, then he may develop hypoglycemia. In this case, the attending physician should adjust the dosage regimen.
The characteristic symptoms of hypoglycemia are chills, excessive sweating, headache, darkening in the eyes. An increase in heart rate is also observed, a feeling of hunger and anxiety develops.
To quickly increase glycemia, you need to take glucose tablets or eat foods high in simple carbohydrates.
The maximum norm of blood sugar in a person who does not suffer from diabetes is about 6.6 mmol / L. If the indicator is higher, then we are talking about a condition such as hyperglycemia.
It is very dangerous. Untimely help is fraught with hyperglycemic coma and other acute complications. The main cause of high blood sugar is diabetes.
There are two types of diabetes. The first type is insulin-dependent, has an innate character, and is difficult to compensate for. The second type is non-insulin-dependent, has an acquired character, and can be compensated in the early stages.
Other causes of hyperglycemia, in addition to diabetes:
- Eating fatty or sweet foods before taking tests.
- The development of menopause. Type 2 diabetes often develops in men during the so-called “menopause”, which develops approximately after 50 years and is characterized by insufficient testosterone production.
- Pathology of the endocrine system. With violations in the thyroid gland, pituitary, adrenal glands, the rate of glycemia and glycated hemoglobin often increases.
- Carbon monoxide poisoning.
- Taking certain medications. Hyperglycemia can be caused by glucocorticosteroids, nicotinic acid, diuretics, glucose tablets, hormonal drugs.
Typical symptoms of hyperglycemia are thirst, frequent urination, a strong feeling of hunger, the appearance of bad breath, prolonged healing of scratches and other damage to the skin. The patient also has generalized itching, headache, dizziness.
With hyperglycemia, you need to contact an endocrinologist.
Treatment methods and possible complications of diabetes
The limits of blood sugar were discussed above. If the glycemia is increased due to diabetes, then the patient without fail requires complex treatment. Both adults and children need to contact an endocrinologist or a diabetologist.
To select a course of treatment, it is necessary to initially identify the type of diabetes, to re-measure glycemia and glycated hemoglobin. In addition, a urine test and a glucose tolerance test are prescribed.
The principles of treatment are as follows:
- Type 1 diabetes. The upper limit of glycemia is 20 mmol / l, the lower is about 11-12 mmol / l. A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus will require insulin therapy. This means that the patient will have to inject insulin throughout his life. The drug is administered subcutaneously. It also does not hurt to follow a diet – the menu removes food that contains many simple carbohydrates and saturated fats. Moderate physical activity will help to compensate for the disease.
- Type 2 diabetes. The upper limit of glycemia is 11-12 mmol / l, the lower is 6.6-7 mmol / l. It is believed that compensating for type 2 diabetes is easier than type 1 diabetes. The basis of therapy is hypoglycemic tablets (Metformin, Formin, Diabeton, etc.). Medicines can be purchased at any pharmacy with a prescription. A diet is definitely prescribed – products with a high content of simple carbohydrates and fats are removed from the menu. It is forbidden to consume fruits with high GI, sweets, semi-finished products, fatty meat dishes, carbonated drinks, alcohol during treatment. Moderate physical exertion is allowed. Sports can reduce glycemia and increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin.
Insulin resistance is an extremely dangerous condition. It is fraught, first of all, with a glycemic coma. Its first signs are inhibition of reaction and loss of consciousness.
In addition, ketoacidosis may develop. This condition develops due to the accumulation of toxic substances in the body. With ketoacidosis, there is a smell of acetone from the mouth, confusion, excessive sweating.
Other possible consequences:
- Diseases of the organs of the cardiovascular system – arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, vegetative-vascular dystonia.
- Pathologies of the digestive tract – liver cirrhosis, fatty liver, pancreatitis, gastritis, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome.
- Erectile disfunction.
- Disorders in the work of the kidneys.
- Decreased visual acuity.
- Microangiopathy, neuropathy.
- Trophic ulcers, gangrene of the lower extremities.
In conclusion, we note that folk methods, prayers, conspiracies do not help in compensating for diabetes.
Doctors strongly recommend that you do not self-medicate and do not rely on unconventional methods of therapy.