Which doctor treats diabetes: which doctor should I contact?
It is completely impossible to cure diabetes. Doctors will only help to achieve lasting compensation for the disease. Often, diabetics wonder which doctor treats diabetes? The treatment is carried out by an endocrinologist-diabetologist.
But diabetes is a disease that adversely affects almost all life support systems of the body. Therefore, diabetics need to undergo additional consultation with other specialists of a narrow profile.
Treat the disease conservatively. With an insulin-dependent form of diabetes, insulin therapy is indicated. With type 2 diabetes, compensation of the ailment can be achieved through diet, exercise, and hypoglycemic drugs.
Which doctors should I contact with diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease in which hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar) occurs. There are two types of diabetes – insulin-dependent (first type) and non-insulin-dependent (second type). There is also diabetes insipidus. This pathology is accompanied by polyuria and constant thirst. Diabetes insipidus develops as a result of abnormalities in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Diabetes mellitus is often detected accidentally during general diagnostics by a general practitioner. With type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there is an increased level of glucose in the blood (over 6.6 mmol / l). Normally, the level of glycemia should be about 3.3-5.5 mmol / L. With a blood sugar level of 5.5-6.5 mmol / L, this is prediabetes.
So what’s the name of a diabetes doctor? Autoimmune pathology is treated by a diabetologist. The doctor selects the appropriate treatment tactics based on the type of diabetes.
To confirm the diagnosis, an appropriate diagnosis is carried out:
- Blood test for sugar (on an empty stomach). Blood is taken from a vein or from a finger. It is believed that when taking blood from a vein, more reliable results can be obtained.
- Glucose tolerance test.
- Urinalysis for ketum bodies and sugar.
- Blood test for glycated hemoglobin.
- Blood test for insulin and C-peptide levels.
- Ultrasound of the pancreas.
Diabetes mellitus is fraught with numerous complications, therefore, when confirming the diagnosis, the patient should consult an ophthalmologist, cardiologist, neurologist, vascular surgeon, urologist.
What symptoms indicate diabetes?
When should I contact a doctor for diabetes? The most characteristic symptom of hyperglycemia is persistent dry mouth. The patient is very thirsty and consumes an excessive amount of fluid.
In type 1 diabetes, the patient loses weight dramatically. If an insulin-independent form of the disease develops, then on the contrary, the patient gains weight. Moreover, fat is deposited mainly on the waist, abdomen and hips.
Also characteristic symptoms of diabetes are:
- Visual impairment.
- Muscle weakness.
- Increased sweating.
- Severe skin itching. Also, the skin becomes dry. Microdamage to the skin heals for a very long time, and can be accompanied by suppuration.
- Blood pressure instability.
- The appearance of the smell of acetone from the mouth.
- Frequent urination.
- Swelling of the lower extremities and face.
- Drowsiness, aggressiveness, irritability. A diabetic child can suffer from insomnia, often acting up.
With decompensation of diabetes, loss of consciousness, hyperhidrosis, a drop in body temperature, and a drop in blood pressure are possible.
How is diabetes treated?
If type 1 diabetes is detected in a child or adult, insulin therapy is the basis of the treatment . This is due to the fact that with this type of pathology, the cells of the pancreas do not produce enough hormone.
Usually, human or synthetic insulin is used. Such hormones do not cause side effects. Animal insulins are more likely to cause allergic reactions and other side effects.
Also, with type 1 diabetes mellitus, patients need to follow a low-carb diet, exercise regularly, and stop smoking and alcoholic beverages. Diabetics should regularly monitor their blood glucose levels using an electrochemical blood glucose meter.
Type 2 diabetes is treated somewhat differently. First, the patient does not have to use insulin. Usually, the administration of the hormone is prescribed only when normalizing the level of glucose in the blood is not possible through the use of hypoglycemic agents, diet and other methods of conservative therapy.
Typically, type 2 diabetes is treated with:
- Strict diet. The patient needs to limit simple carbohydrates and trans fats in his diet. Diabetics should eat healthy complex carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and unsaturated fats. The basis of the diet should be cereals, low-fat dairy products, vegetables and fruits with a low glycemic index, lean meat, seafood, fish. Be sure to eat fractionally, that is, often in small portions.
- Of sports. The appointment of moderate physical activity will reduce blood sugar, normalize blood circulation, and increase the sensitivity of beta cells to insulin. Useful are walking, swimming, athletics, running. Sport will be useful even if you suspect prediabetes.
- Folk remedies. A good effect is shown in tincture of bean leaves, a decoction of calendula flowers, tincture of ginger, a mixture of cinnamon and honey. These funds can not completely cure the ailment – they are used only for auxiliary purposes.
- Hypoglycemic drugs (Metformin, Glibenclamide, Januvia, Nova Met, Glyukobay, Siofor, Glyukofazh, Sitagliptin). In the acute course of pathology, several hypoglycemic agents can be used simultaneously.
If we consider new methods of treating diabetes, we can note the transplantation of the pancreas and stem cells, which turn into beta cells. The price of such procedures starts from 100 thousand US dollars. Pancreatic transplantation is currently carried out only in Israel, the USA and some EU countries.
With diabetes can give disability. The degree of disability depends on the severity of diabetes. For diabetics, insulin, supplies for a glucometer, insulin pumps and some hypoglycemic drugs may be given out on benefits.
With a mild course of the disease, a degree of disability is issued. With decompensated diabetes, even 1 degree of disability can be issued.
Possible complications of diabetes
Late access to the diabetes center is fraught with numerous complications. For example, chronic hyperglycemia often results in hyperglycemic coma.
With an inadequately selected dosage of insulin or hypoglycemic drugs, a sharp decrease in blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) is possible. This condition can also go into a hypoglycemic coma.
Possible complications of diabetes include:
- Diabetic foot syndrome, trophic ulcers. If this complication is not treated in a timely manner, then gangrene may develop in diabetes mellitus.
- Neuropathy, polyneuropathy.
- Atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary heart disease and other pathologies of the cardiovascular system.
- Diabetic angiopathy, retinopathy.
- Anemia and other disorders in the hematopoietic system.
- Gastroparesis and dysfunction of the digestive system.
- Impotence, decreased libido.
- Syndrome of insensitive limbs.
- Renal failure.
Even with diabetes, a hyperosmolar coma may develop. This condition is accompanied by elevated levels of sodium and glucose in the blood. Hyperosmolar coma usually progresses due to dehydration. Interestingly, this condition is much more likely to develop with type 2 diabetes.
Also a serious complication of the “sweet illness” is a lactic acidosis coma. In this case, the patient has an accumulation of lactic acid in the blood. Usually, coma develops as a result of kidney, liver, or heart failure.
Ketoacidosis can be attributed to the late consequences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This condition is accompanied by the accumulation of metabolic products (ketone bodies) in the blood. Complications can cause trauma, recent surgery, errors in nutrition.