Diet for type 1 and type 2 diabetes: how to lose weight?
Not only beauty requires weight loss with diabetes. This factor is especially important for patients in the context of health and disease containment. It has long been proven that with excess weight less than 15%, diabetes develops extremely rarely, and if such a person does develop the disease, then it stays in remission longer and does not provoke complications. Nutrition and physical activity play a huge role in this.
Reasons for a diabetic to lose weight
Many cannot find the motivation to lose weight. Quite often there is not enough endurance or patients assure themselves that their body is “almost normal”. And they continue to lead the same lifestyle, taking only drugs. Doctors say that you need to lose weight because:
- The presence of a large amount of adipose tissue causes the body to produce even more insulin, due to which the cells gradually lose their sensitivity to the hormone;
- Treatment without a balanced diet is simply impossible: a correct diet helps to reduce the production of a substance and reduce the load on the pancreas, and therefore the risks of progression or complications of the disease decrease along with the weight loss;
- Type 2 diabetes requires equalization of sugar levels, which is achieved to a greater extent by proper nutrition;
- Losing weight also helps to reduce the stress on blood vessels, which already suffer from type 1 and 2 diabetes, as well as reduce the amount of drugs taken.
But for the most correct selection of the method of losing weight, it is better to consult with a nutritionist. This is explained by the fact that there is a certain list of prohibited and permitted products, as well as methods of their consumption.
The best option is still considered diet number 9. It allows you to lose weight and not break the diet in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Diet Principles # 9
Naturally, each nutritional method has its own characteristics. They must be taken into account, since it is the flaws in the diet of many that lead to the disease itself and its complications. Therefore, the following principles should be considered. Reducing the volume of carbohydrates to obtain a low calorie content: exclude baked goods, sweets, potatoes, sugary fruits, pasta, which are replaced with cereals. Reducing the proportion of fats: smoked meats and lard are eliminated, and in their place those fats that are easily digestible are introduced – butter, vegetable oil, as well as low-fat products from the fermented milk series. It is important to maintain a substantial proportion of proteins. There are a lot of these substances in meat, eggs, fish. And for satiety, it is better to give preference to foods with fiber content. Vegetables should also be low-carb. These include salads, tomatoes, beets, carrots, cabbage, eggplants, and so on. Ideally, they are best consumed fresh, like fruit. Fractional nutrition must become a daily routine. This implies regularly dividing the entire diet into 5-6 meals. Moreover, the main meals are equal in volume, but the snacks between them should be slightly less. Drinking can be quite varied during the diet. You can take not only water, but also herbal teas, teas, mineral water. But any drink should be sugar-free, although substitutes can be used. Alcohol is completely excluded. Bread can be consumed, but only 200 g for the whole day. For type 2 diabetics, this should be a must. Fruit and berry ingredients are limited to 300 g. When such volumes are exceeded, the proportion of sugar in the blood will increase and sooner or later will cause complications of the disease.
In addition to diet, obesity therapy is necessarily supplemented with physical activity in diabetes.
Table number 9: menu
Divide the meal into at least 5-6 meals. At the same time, some snacks will not be particularly satisfying, while others will be high-calorie enough to provide the necessary level of energy for a specific period of time:
- The first breakfast consists of cottage cheese (necessarily semi-fat), sauerkraut salad, milk, unsweetened coffee, unsweetened beets;
- Second breakfast: no more than 1 apple;
- Lunch: steamed fish cutlets, fish soup, apple, stewed eggplant;
- Afternoon snack: semi-fat cottage cheese and grated carrots;
- Dinner: stewed cabbage, steamed fish cutlets;
- Second supper before bedtime: a glass of kefir.
For every meal, you can find a replacement dish. For example, the first breakfast may include buckwheat porridge and a portion of fish pate, for the second breakfast – a bran bun with cottage cheese and kefir, for lunch – vegetable soup, mashed potatoes, sugar-free apple and rosehip compote, and so on. Variations of dishes can be chosen according to your personal preferences, while they will fully correspond to a diet for weight loss.
What other diets to apply for weight loss in diabetes?
Table number 9 is not the only diet that can be used for weight loss in both types of diabetes. Nutrition according to Dr. Atkins also shows good results. It also involves cutting back on carbohydrates. The first stage lasts about 2 weeks, where every day you can consume this type of substance no more than 20 g. Here, seafood, lean meat, fish and vegetables should prevail on the table. For the second stage, an increase in carbohydrates is already required, literally up to 40 g. At the same time, it is necessary to conduct careful weight control, an increase in which indicates violations in the diet. In the West, the Bernstein diet was invented, which is actively used in diabetes. Essentially, this is an Atkins diet that controls the amount and type of carbohydrates with fats. It is better to decide which variation to choose with a specialist.
Losing weight tips for diabetics
In fact, getting rid of obesity is permissible for any type of disease, although it is somewhat more difficult to do this than for a healthy person. It is necessary to approach the problem in a comprehensive manner, stocking up with patience and consistency in actions. It is impossible to sit on mono-diets or rigid methods due to the fact that in the very first days the body will suffer colossal damage, and besides that, even healthy people were faced with the fact that after such experiments the weight returned, and even with an increase. Therefore, it is important to put into practice a number of features of proper weight loss.
The benefits of water
Drinking water plays one of the most important roles in the process of losing weight. Drink it intensively, and especially for diabetics, whose cells already suffer from dehydration. Water allows you to speed up metabolism, removing consumed fats that have broken down into various compounds at times faster. As a result, the kidneys get rid of the load and one of the most dangerous complications – ketoacidosis – is avoided. Water and drink are completely different things. Teas, juices, coffee do not belong to water, although they contain it. In general, it is better to refuse the latter, giving preference to chicory because of the ability of caffeine drinks to dehydrate the body, giving a diuretic effect. Water is drunk at a rate of 30-40 ml / kg of weight. This is approximately 70-80% of the fluid intake, which is divided into several doses per day.
Many patients cope with the problem of restructuring the daily regimen and diet themselves. But most often people with type 2 diabetes face this situation. This disease develops with age and requires a serious lifestyle change, which not everyone can cope with. If you still learn that pathology is not a sentence, but just a way of life, then keeping the diet is easier. If a person is not able to cope with depression on his own , then you can seek help from a psychologist. He will help you to properly rebuild and accept your condition. Important: despite some prohibitions, the diet of a diabetic remains quite varied and very tasty. Therefore, in addition to a psychologist, you can also hold meetings with a nutritionist.
When creating a menu, it is necessary to control the proportion of calories received as energy. Therefore, it is impossible to do without calculations. In general, the diet should be limited to 1200-1600 units. calories for:
- Women with short stature, lack of sports in life;
- Ladies of medium build who are eager to lose weight;
- Slender representatives of the fair sex with small stature, who are engaged in sports or hard work.
These people should consume 6 servings of food per day at regular intervals. Two servings must include protein foods of animal origin, and 3 – food with easily digestible fats and vegetables. It is permissible to eat 6 servings per day. 1 should be with a starchy product, 2 – an animal product, 3 – vegetables and food with fat. For men, the calorie content is slightly higher – 1600-2000 units. This volume is relevant for:
- Short and slender;
- Obese men who wish to lose weight;
- Men of average size, whose lifestyle borders on physical inactivity.
These categories divide the diet into eight servings. They should contain starch, three should contain fruits, 4 should contain a fat-containing product or vegetables, and 2 should contain animal products. But 2000-2400 units. preferable to such a category of patients as:
- Men with high growth involved in physical labor or intensive sports;
- Especially tall, non-obese men;
- Women with the same parameters and sufficient physical activity.
These people are required to divide the diet into 11 servings. They contain starch. 2 include sour milk and meat, 3 – fruits, 4 – vegetables, 5 – fatty foods. These principles are preserved in full in table 9. At the same time, it is required to eat quite often and little by little, preventing the development of hunger, which will allow you to control the amount of glucose.
Diabetes is either a deficiency in the 1st type of insulin production, or immunity with the 2nd type of insulin production. Accordingly, therapy is also built, starting from the state and characteristics of the disease. But the problem is that the drug insulin slows down the breakdown of fats. Despite this, it is impossible to refuse medications, but weight loss is mandatory. The only way out is a low-carb diet. Under its influence, the process of sugar assimilation is stabilized, due to which its volume decreases to normal. As a result, it is possible to reduce the amount of drugs used, and this in turn helps to reduce weight.
There are also drugs that help to reduce the amount of insulin used, for example, Glucophage, Siofor and others. But they are prescribed for type 2 or insulin-dependent diabetes.
For diabetics, this product is generally contraindicated, but it should still be introduced into the diet in minimal quantities. In this case, it is better to use not ordinary table salt, but sea salt. It is absolutely impossible to refuse it because of the risk of developing complications from the thyroid gland and the immune system.
Prohibitions in the menu
Naturally, there are also “taboos” on a number of products. These include the same names as in any healthy diet, with some exceptions. The main contraindications in the diet affected:
- Sweets, confectionery and curd products, sugar;
- Raisins, figs, dates, grapes and other sweet fruits;
- Sugar soda;
It is these products that can increase sugar many times over in an instant. If it is permissible to use such delicacies, then only in the most limited portions and very rarely. You should also forget about those dishes that do not increase sugar levels, but at the same time have a high fat content or other negative properties:
- Heavy broths made from animal products;
- Sour cream and cream;
- Pork fat;
- Milk soups with semolina, white rice, vermicelli;
- Fatty fish with and without caviar;
- Spicy or fatty sauces, including mayonnaise;
- Liver, tongue;
- Canned food of any type;
- Smoked products with sausages;
- Pickled and salted vegetables;
- Coffee, alcohol.
You cannot eat them even after normalizing weight. With regard to broths, it is better to give preference to secondary cooking options, when the first broth is drained and the second is cooked on already boiled meat or fish.
Losing weight in diabetics is possible and simply necessary. True, it is not worth trying to lose “ballast” in a week or even a month, as well as losing weight with strict diets. Before starting this type of exposure, it is ideally worth consulting with a whole range of specialists. In the process, it is important to monitor your blood sugar levels in order to understand if this dietary pattern works.