Is it possible to get pregnant and give birth to a healthy child with diabetes mellitus
Pregnancy and childbirth are the most natural processes. For all women, and not only for them, this is the most expected and desired period in life.
For some, this event is a sudden joy, and for others, it is carefully planned with a long period of preparation.
In today’s conditions, many women suffer from various chronic serious diseases, so they often ask the question: is it possible for them to become pregnant and give birth? In this article, we will discuss the problem: is it possible to get pregnant with type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
The verdict and recommendations of doctors
What is this disease? It is also called “sweet disease” – this is the inability of the pancreas to produce or use the hormone insulin for its intended purpose.
This hormone must process and utilize sugar that forms in the blood after the breakdown of carbohydrate foods consumed by humans. There are two types of diabetes mellitus: 1 and 2. Therefore, naturally in women suffering from this disease, the question arises: is it possible to get pregnant with high blood sugar?
Insulin is produced by the pancreas
Several decades ago, doctors unequivocally gave a negative answer to the question of whether it is possible to become pregnant with diabetes. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was an absolute obstacle to the occurrence of pregnancy and the successful bearing of a child.
Modern medicine has gone far ahead, and, despite certain difficulties associated with the pathologies caused by this disease, today you can get pregnant and give birth with type 1 and 2 diabetes. At this stage in the development of medicine, pregnancy and childbirth in women with such a diagnosis is absolutely normal, despite the possible risks associated with it.
It has been established that if the mother is sick with diabetes, then the child’s chance of developing it is two percent, if the father – then five percent, and if both parents – twenty-five.
A pregnant woman must certainly be under constant supervision and control of three specialists: a gynecologist, an endocrinologist and a nutritionist.
The organisms of the mother and the child are inextricably linked during the entire period of pregnancy, therefore, constant monitoring of the level of glucose in the mother’s blood is necessary to avoid complications associated with a slowdown in fetal development and genetic abnormalities.
With sharp jumps in blood sugar levels, a miscarriage may be triggered, or the baby will be overweight, and this, in turn, can cause a deterioration in the birth process and injury to the baby.
Sometimes it happens that a child is born with a low sugar level, this is due to the peculiarities of development during pregnancy, since his pancreas was forced to produce more insulin due to the mother’s illness. After childbirth, over time, the glucose level will return to normal, but insulin will continue to be produced in the same volume.
“12817”] It is imperative and careful for pregnant women to monitor their blood sugar levels in order to avoid problems and not lose the baby.
Contraindications for pregnancy
Despite the great successes and achievements of modern medicine, and the fact that it is possible to become pregnant and give birth with diabetes, there are a number of contraindications that impede this process.
Diabetes puts a huge burden on the state of all body systems, and when pregnancy occurs, it increases significantly, which threatens not only the fetus, but also the life of the mother.
There are a number of concomitant diseases that interfere with the normal course and successful bearing of a child with diabetes:
- cardiac ischemia;
- severe renal failure;
- rhesus – conflict;
- insulin-resistant diabetes;
It has already been mentioned about the increased risk of diabetes mellitus detection in both parents, this is also a contraindication to pregnancy. Here you need a full examination plus expert advice on how great the chances of bearing and giving birth to a healthy baby are.
There is no doubt that the pregnancy of a woman with diabetes mellitus should be planned, and not sudden, with preliminary thorough preparation of the body about six months before it occurs. A woman is obliged to completely control the level of glucose in her bloodstream, to exclude the use of additional medications and vitamins, to find good and competent doctors who will be followed up in the future.
“12817”] Psychological preparation for this process is important, since, most likely, pregnancy will be difficult, you need to be ready to spend a lot of time under the supervision of doctors in a hospital.
Types of diabetes in pregnant women
As mentioned above, it is possible to become pregnant with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but these are not the only subtypes of diabetes that are detected in women in the position.
Diabetes causes a lot of obstetric complications in the mother and child, so experts pay great attention to it and divide it into the following types that accompany pregnancy:
- latent – has no clinical signs, the diagnosis is made on the basis of studies and analyzes;
- threatening – can develop in pregnant women with a predisposition, with poor heredity and overweight, already having children, born with a heavy weight, above 4.5 kg. In such expectant mothers, glucosuria is found – sugar in the urine, indicating a low renal glucose threshold. Monitoring and control should be ongoing when a given problem is identified;
- explicit – diagnosed using tests for glucosuria and glycemia. It is divided into three forms: light, medium and heavy. The latter is accompanied by damage to the kidneys, retina, trophic ulcers, cardiac lesions, hypertension.
There is also another type of diabetes – gestational, which develops in perfectly healthy women during pregnancy, in about 3 – 5%. Requires attention and control from doctors. After childbirth, it disappears, may return with repeated pregnancy.
It is found at about 20 weeks, the exact causes of its occurrence have not yet been identified. The hormones produced by the placenta block the mother’s insulin, causing blood sugar to rise.
At risk for gestational diabetes:
- women over forty;
- if there is a close relative with this disease;
- women of races other than Caucasians;
- who gave birth to a previous child weighing more than 4.5 kg.
“12817”] It is imperative to consult with narrow specialists, to follow all their recommendations.
Diabetes mellitus in men and conceiving a child
Men, as well as women, are susceptible to this disease, with the same symptoms and divisions into different types.
If a man has been suffering from diabetes for many years, this disease leaves an imprint on the state of the body, provoking a failure in its well-coordinated work, causing numerous pathologies.
Difficulty conceiving and male infertility is one of the complications of diabetes.
As a result of the disease, small and large blood vessels are damaged, and normal blood circulation is disrupted. Decompensated diabetes causes difficulties in the functioning of the kidneys and genitourinary system.
The urethra narrows, the semen cannot come out during ejaculation, returns to the bladder, so fertilization cannot occur.
“12817”] Another problem is diabetic neuropathy, which causes impaired potency. Normal intercourse is also impossible, the result is infertility.
All three trimesters, while awaiting the appearance of the baby, must be under the full supervision of all doctors involved in the successful course of pregnancy.
First, the expectant mother undergoes a full examination by such specialists as a gynecologist, endocrinologist, nutritionist and geneticist, and then, taking into account all the appointments and following the recommendations, a special period of a woman’s life begins.
A pregnant woman should eat properly based on diet number 9. Limit consumption of fats and carbohydrates, increase – proteins. Sugar, honey, sweets, jam are excluded completely.
You need to take more vitamins and minerals. The total number of daily calories should not exceed three thousand. Eat strictly by the hour, and all patients have compulsory insulin therapy. Oral medications are excluded during this time period.
During the entire pregnancy, a woman is admitted to the hospital for outpatient observation 3 times.
Immediately after registration, at 20-24 weeks and at 32-34 to adjust the intake and doses of insulin.
In the last trimester, a woman’s method of childbirth is determined, depending on her general condition of the body, a decision is made either naturally, or with the help of a cesarean section.
Most doctors are sure that a woman with diabetes should give birth before the due date by about 2 to 3 weeks. Children adopted by such mothers, even with sufficient weight, are still considered premature and at first are under full control and supervision.