Is it possible to give birth with type 1 diabetes: how is childbirth and possible complications
When a woman thinks about planning a child, she tries to eliminate negative factors that can affect his health.
Many expectant mothers give up smoking and alcohol, begin to follow special diets and take multivitamin preparations. Women with diabetes not only have to prepare for pregnancy more thoroughly, they must be prepared for very unpleasant surprises.
In some cases, you have to give up the idea of having a baby altogether. Is this fear of pregnancy justified with this disease, and is it possible to give birth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
The essence of the disease
Many people think of diabetes as a single disease. Its essence really lies in one phenomenon – an increase in blood sugar.
But, in fact, diabetes is different, depending on the mechanisms of its occurrence. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in people whose pancreas is not functioning properly.
Its cells synthesize less insulin, which is able to remove glucose from the blood to the liver, converting it there into an insoluble, large-molecular form – glycogen. Hence the name of the disease – insulin-dependent diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is not associated with a decrease in insulin synthesis, but with the immunity of this hormone by the cells of the body. That is, there is enough insulin, but it cannot perform its function, so glucose also remains in the blood. This form of the disease can remain asymptomatic and subtle for much longer.
Pregnant women have another form of diabetes – gestational diabetes. It occurs several weeks before childbirth and is also accompanied by difficulties in utilizing glucose from the bloodstream.
With diabetes, a person develops various pathologies that complicate his life. The processes of water-salt metabolism are disrupted, a person is tormented by thirst, he feels weak.
Vision may decrease, blood pressure increases, the appearance of the skin deteriorates, and its damage does not heal for a very long time. This is not a complete list of the difficulties and dangers faced by a diabetic.
The most dangerous phenomenon is hyperglycemic coma, which can develop with an uncontrolled jump in sugar several times compared to the norm. This condition can cause the death of the body.
“12817”] If a woman noticed signs of diabetes, it is imperative to see a doctor, regardless of the presence or absence of pregnancy plans.
Pregnancy and childbirth with diabetes
Before the discovery of insulin, people believed that you shouldn’t give birth with diabetes. This was due to the low survival rate of newborns, a high percentage of intrauterine deaths, and the danger to the life of the mother.
More than half of pregnancies ended tragically for a woman or a child. But after the development of a method for treating type 1 diabetes (the most common) with the introduction of insulin, these risks began to decrease.
Now, in many clinics, the infant mortality rate for mothers with diabetes has decreased, on average, by 15%, and in institutions with a high level of medical care, even up to 7%. Therefore, you can give birth with diabetes.
The likelihood of complications in pregnant women with diabetes always remains. The very process of bearing a fetus is much more difficult for women with such a pathology, the risk of miscarriages or premature birth remains high. Their body is already weakened by a chronic disease, and pregnancy greatly increases the load on all organs.
If the husband has type 1 diabetes mellitus, is it possible to give birth?
There is a possibility of inherited transmission of the disease (2% – if the expectant mother is sick, 5% – if the father is sick, and 25% if both parents are sick).
Even if the baby does not inherit this ailment, he still feels the negative effects of high blood sugar in the mother during the period of intrauterine development.
A large fetus may develop, the amount of amniotic fluid often increases excessively, the child may suffer from hypoxia or metabolic disorders. Such newborns take longer to adapt to life outside the mother’s body, and are more likely to suffer from infectious diseases.
Some babies are born with congenital malformations due to constant metabolic imbalance. This not only reduces the quality of their life, but can also lead to death at an early age. Such newborns also have characteristic external signs – a rounded face, excessive development of subcutaneous tissue, overweight, cyanosis of the skin and the presence of bleeding spots.
Childbirth itself with diabetes mellitus can be significantly complicated. Labor activity can be weakened, and then the process of the appearance of the baby is delayed.
This is fraught with the development of hypoxia in the child, disruption of the work of his heart. Therefore, childbirth with such a risk factor should proceed under the most close supervision.
Interestingly, during pregnancy, a woman’s body experiences diabetes in different ways. In the first months and before childbirth, the pregnant woman may feel relief, she is reduced in the dose of insulin administered.
This is due to hormonal changes. The middle of pregnancy is the most difficult period when the manifestations of the disease can intensify and be accompanied by complications. How a woman’s body behaves during childbirth depends on her individual characteristics: both a decrease in sugar and a sharp jump can occur.
“12817”] If the doctor sees no serious contraindications for pregnancy, a woman needs to think with optimism – taking care of herself while carrying a baby will protect him from health problems.
Can you give birth with type 1 diabetes?
No one can forbid a woman to give birth to a child, but in the presence of difficult circumstances, the doctor may recommend abandoning the idea of having a child or offer to terminate the pregnancy if conception has already occurred.
It is not recommended to give birth if:
• the mother’s disease progresses rapidly;
• there is a vascular lesion;
• both partners are diabetics;
• diabetes is combined with the presence of Rh-conflict or tuberculosis.
If a decision is made to terminate the pregnancy, this is done before 12 weeks.
In the event that a woman still decides to continue carrying a baby, doctors should warn about all the risks that may await her.
“12817”] If the doctor strongly recommends giving up the idea of getting pregnant, you should not dwell on this problem, you need to find other goals and joys in life.
How to maintain a pregnancy?
It is worth thinking about such a question even before conception. Moreover, in this aspect, the successful bearing of a baby depends on the correct behavior of the parents of the expectant mother.
Typically, the most common form of diabetes manifests itself during childhood or adolescence.
If the parents closely monitor their daughter’s condition, control sugar and take the necessary measures to normalize it in a timely manner, the girl’s body will suffer less from the disease. It is necessary not only to take care of your child yourself, but also to teach him to do everything necessary on his own.
If a woman constantly monitors her sugar levels and takes treatment if necessary, it will be easier for her to prepare for pregnancy. You may need to undergo additional tests and visit your doctor more often for family planning advice.
During pregnancy, you need to check your sugar level every day, several times (how much – the doctor will tell you).
It is necessary to undergo all prescribed examinations and analyzes. In most cases, it is recommended to go to the hospital three times during the period of gestation for a more thorough monitoring of the condition of the woman, the fetus and correction of insulin therapy.
In diabetes mellitus, it is recommended to inject insulin constantly, at least in small doses, this smooths out the harmful effect of the disease on the fetus. The method of delivery should be thought out in advance. In most cases, doctors give preference to natural childbirth. If the mother’s condition is not so satisfactory, and labor activity is low, it is necessary to do a cesarean section.
The assertion that diabetes mellitus is an indication for cesarean is rather a myth, a woman can quite successfully give birth on her own, if there are no complications. During childbirth, to facilitate the process, doctors may inject oxytocin to normalize the contraction of the uterus. In some cases, an episiotomy is done to help the baby move through the birth canal.
A special diet should be followed.
On the one hand, it should include only those foods that do not increase blood sugar, on the other hand, the diet must be complete, taking into account all the needs of the mother and fetus.
A woman will have to closely monitor the calorie content of food, but this does not mean that she should starve – the lack of valuable substances will aggravate the effect of diabetes on the baby’s body. The daily calorie intake and the nuances of dietary nutrition should be discussed with your doctor.
“12817”] During pregnancy, diabetes should rely solely on the recommendations of specialists; it is extremely dangerous to self-treat or cancel treatment.