Type 2 diabetes: diet and nutrition
Diabetes mellitus (DM) of the second type is a disease caused by problems with the interaction of the thyroid hormone insulin with tissue cells. The main symptom of the disease is high blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes refers to chronic metabolic diseases. Its treatment should stimulate the sensitivity of cells to insulin and normalize glucose levels.
In any medical literature, the importance of nutrition in diabetes mellitus type two is indicated. To understand why this factor is so important, you need to find out the mechanics of the process of increasing the concentration of sugar in the blood.
Carbohydrates are converted into glucose, which enter the body. If there are many of them with food, then insufficient insulin sensitivity does not adequately respond to rising sugar levels. Hyperglycemia develops.
To prevent it, you need to strictly restrict food containing carbohydrates. To do this, create a conventional unit of measurement – the bread unit (XE). It shows the amount of product containing ten simple carbohydrates. Per day a patient with diabetes can have a limited amount of XE. Their number is determined by the doctor, who knows the nuances of the patient and the disease. Limit numbers look like this:
Normal patient weight Patient overweight
Sedentary lifestyle 15 XE 10 XE
Seated work 18 XE 13 XE
The average level of physical activity 25 XE 17 XE
High level of physical activity 30 XE 25 XE
These figures show how much carbohydrates can be absorbed by the body cells without increasing the concentration of glucose in the blood. No need to think that the menu, compiled by 25-30 bread units will be scarce. This is only carbohydrates. Balancing it and making it nutritious can foods rich in other components that do not affect blood sugar levels.
The second fundamental indicator of the diet for diabetes of the second type is the glycemic index (GI). It shows the degree of influence of carbohydrates from a particular food on the level of glucose in the blood.
The glycemic index is:
Low less than 55
Tall more than 70
When drafting a diet for a patient with diabetes mellitus of the second type, products with low GI are recommended. The number of products with an average need to be limited, with a high – excluded.
Having understood the concepts of the bread unit and the glycemic index, we can begin to talk about food products that can and cannot be eaten during diabetes of the second type.
What products can and should not be
Before you go to the table with the products that you can eat with SD of the second type, let us recall the criteria by which they are selected. Products must:
do not contain carbon or contain them in a small amount;
have a low glycemic index;
contain vitamins, beneficial microelements;
be nutritious and tasty.
Food products that meet these requirements, a lot. Making a tasty and safe menu for a diabetic is not difficult.
In order to visually consider the foods that can be eaten with type 2 diabetes, we give them in groups.
The fact that for all of us – the basis of the diet, for diabetics – a complete ban. Cereals, flour, pasta – a large amount of carbohydrates, which in diabetes should be excluded from the menu.
You can look for exotic options in the form of green buckwheat or rice quinoa, which contain less carbohydrates. But only as an exception, if you really want to.
Vegetables are an important part of the diabetic patient’s diet. Almost all vegetables have a low glycemic index and a low concentration of carbohydrates. There are exceptions. For clarity, allowed and prohibited vegetables are listed in the table:
Allowed vegetables for diabetes of the second type Prohibited vegetables for diabetes of the second type
Eggplant (GI 10, carbohydrates in 100 g – 6 g) Boiled potatoes (GI 65, carbohydrate in 100 g – 17 g)
Tomatoes (10, 3.7 g) Corn (70, 22 g)
Squashes (15, 4.6 g) Beets (70, 10 g)
Cabbage (15, 6 g) Pumpkin (75, 7 g)
Onions (15, 9 g) Fried Potatoes (95, 17 g)
String beans (30, 7 g)
Cauliflower (30, 5 g)
You can or can not eat certain vegetables with diabetes – relative concepts. Everything must be treated responsibly. You can not overdo it with the allowed, but the categorical prohibition is not absolute. It all depends on the course of the disease in the patient, the reaction of the body and the desire of the patient. A slice of the forbidden product does not harm, if compensated by a more strict diet in relation to other components of the menu.
Milk and its derivatives are permitted in case of diabetes of the second type and are recommended. Milk performs three important functions:
delivers into the intestine bacteria that improve the microflora of the mucous membrane;
protects the digestive tract from putrefactive bacteria;
have a positive effect on glucose and ketone bodies.
Choosing dairy products for the diabetic menu you need to remember the only rule: they must be low-fat.
Milk, cottage cheese, low-fat varieties of hard cheeses, yogurt, sour cream should be the basis of the diabetic’s diet.