Today, there are more than 150 million people in the world who suffer from such a serious illness as diabetes. Every day the number of diabetics on the planet is growing at a tremendous pace. Oddly enough, diabetes is one of the most ancient diseases, but it was not until 1922 that they learned how to diagnose it. In this article we will tell you about the types and causes of diabetes, how to treat it and we will deal with preventive measures. Often, in periodicals and on television, they talk about diabetes as a terrible phenomenon that destroys their whole life. Yes, diabetes makes you change your lifestyle, but if you constantly monitor it, you will not have problems with this ailment at all. In order to fully address the topic of diabetes, you need to understand the reasons why diabetes occurs in the human body.
Causes of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is divided into 2 types: diabetes mellitus of the first type and diabetes mellitus of the second type. These are two completely different diseases, but in the first and in the second case, the culprit of the disease is elevated blood sugar levels.
Sugar (glucose) is a nutrient that provides us with energy, and insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that promotes glucose entry into the cells of our body. We will try to explain with an example: in the normal functioning of the body, after a meal, insulin helps glucose get into the cells of our body: the brain cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, etc. In diabetes, insulin is either not produced at all or the cells do not respond to it and therefore glucose cannot enter inside the cell. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood rises, and the human body is dehydrated, decomposition of fats, etc. occurs.
If you do not control blood sugar levels and do not treat diabetes, then this can lead a person into a state of diabetic coma. In addition to coma, diabetes leads to other negative consequences, sugar destroys blood vessels, and this can lead to blindness, renal failure, stroke and heart attack, as well as amputation of the legs.
Now let’s look specifically at the causes of diabetes in the first and second types.
Causes of type 1 diabetes
In diabetes, the first type of insulin decreases or ceases to be produced by the pancreas. Basically, the cause of type 1 diabetes is genetic predisposition. In this case, not the diabetes itself, but the predisposition to it, is transmitted genetically to the person.
The reason we found out is heredity, but how can the disease manifest itself? The heredity of diabetes can be in the body, but under the influence of bacteria and viruses, surgery, etc. “Hidden threat” can go into the active phase. In this case, those who are predisposed to diabetes, viral infections can provoke the creation of antibodies that destroy the insulin-forming cells, which leads to the appearance of the disease.
A person who has a hereditary predisposition to diabetes may not become a diabetic throughout his life if he controls himself, leading a healthy lifestyle: proper nutrition, physical activity, medical supervision, etc. Typically, type 1 diabetes occurs in children and adolescents.
As a result of research, doctors have come to the conclusion that the causes of diabetes mellitus in 5% depend on the mother’s line, 10% on the father’s side, and if both parents have diabetes, the likelihood of transmitting a predisposition to diabetes increases to almost 70% .
Causes of type 2 diabetes
If in the case of diabetes of the first type, insulin is not produced by the body, then in case of diabetes of the second type, insulin in the body is sufficient, but glucose does not enter the cells.
The cause of type 2 diabetes is a decrease in the sensitivity of cells to insulin. This process is caused by fat, which produces the hormone adiponectin, because of it the insulin receptor sensitivity decreases, which leads to diabetes. It turns out that glucose is, insulin is, but the cells do not receive glucose. In this case, a surplus of insulin provokes even greater obesity, and an increased sugar content leads to the destruction of blood vessels in our body and, as we have said, this is fraught with blindness and other above-mentioned negative consequences.
The most common cause of type 2 diabetes is obesity. In obesity, the pancreas and liver are enveloped in fat, causing the cells to lose insulin sensitivity and do not release glucose.
Nowadays it is very difficult to find a person who would eat right. Due to the fact that we: abuse harmful products, there is a lack of fiber and protein in our diet, we eat large amounts of sweets – all this leads to the development of diabetes. Overeating is fraught with the appearance of excess weight, and in consequence of obesity.
Sedentary lifestyle contributes to the appearance of excess weight, and not only.