Type 2 diabetes prevention
According to the World Health Organization, the number of people with diabetes in almost 30 years has grown by almost 4 times – as of 2014, there were 422 million patients with this diagnosis in the world. And a large proportion of them are precisely those who suffer from type 2 diabetes.
What is type 2 diabetes
Doctors distinguish two types of diabetes. The first one deals with pancreatic pathology, which does not produce the hormone insulin. And since it is he who is responsible for the transport of glucose (energy) to the cells, the patient manifests hyperglycemia (an increased amount of sugar in the blood) and exhaustion. The disease is diagnosed, usually in childhood, patients have to receive insulin injections all their lives.
Type 2 diabetes is an acquired disease. And it is based on insulin resistance – the immunity of cells to insulin. That is, the pancreas produces a hormone in sufficient quantities, but it is not able to perform its functions. In blood tests of patients, not only an increased level of glucose, but also an excess of insulin will be noted. And since the hormone promotes the growth of adipose tissue, people with type 2 diabetes suffer from obesity. Insulin resistance develops gradually, so the disease manifests itself in most cases in people over 40 years old. Moreover, in such patients, doctors can diagnose the stage of prediabetes, when pathological changes in the body are still reversible.
Risk Factors for Diabetes
Why does insulin resistance occur? Doctors identify a number of risk factors that contribute to this pathology. First of all, type 2 diabetes is a hereditary disease. At the same time, not insulin resistance itself is transmitted from the parents, but only a predisposition to it. Therefore, subject to the norms of prevention, we can expect that the disease will occur much later, already at an advanced age, or it will not develop at all.
Insulin resistance is directly related to a constant excess of blood sugar. That is, if the glucose level is constantly increased, the pancreas is forced to produce more hormone, the cells are not able to consume this amount and gradually gradually stop responding to insulin. Therefore, the second reason for the development of diabetes after heredity is malnutrition.
Among other factors, doctors call:
- Overweight (especially dangerous abdominal obesity, in which fat accumulates on the stomach).
- Inadequate physical activity.
- Inadequate or excessive sleep. It is equally harmful to sleep less than 6 and more than 9 hours a day.
- Depression, stress.
A sharp increase in blood sugar is caused by the so-called “simple” carbohydrates. To prevent diabetes, their number must be minimized, and at the stage of prediabetes or an already frolicing disease, it is best to completely exclude from the diet. “Simple” carbohydrates include products with a glycemic index above 55. In particular, these are:
- Sweet muffin.
- Different desserts, ice cream.
- Chocolate (except bitter, more than 75% cocoa).
- White bread.
- Pasta (not from durum wheat).
- Some root crops are beets, rutabaga.
- White rice.
- Sweet carbonated drinks.
The disease often develops in people with obesity, and overweight significantly worsens its course. Therefore, nutrition for diabetes is based on low-calorie dishes with the exception of such products:
- Smoked meats, pickles.
- Semi-finished products.
- Fast food.
- Too fatty foods (fried, pork, lard, sweet custards and more).
Diabetes nutrition should be 60% “complex” carbohydrates, which slowly increase blood sugar. Due to this, there are no sharp jumps in glucose and insulin emissions. In addition, the body is provided with energy longer – a feeling of hunger occurs only 4-5 hours after eating. Among the recommended products:
- Leafy greens – spinach, celery and others.
- Fresh vegetables – tomatoes, bell peppers, cucumbers and more.
- Unsweetened fruits and berries, in particular citrus fruits.
- Legumes – soy, beans, lentils.
From protein foods, it is better to choose low-fat meats, fish, sour-milk products with low fat content.
A very important part of good nutrition for diabetes is drinking enough. This is due to the fact that the penetration of glucose into cells requires not only insulin, but also water. Therefore, it is important for a person to drink a sufficient amount of liquid. It should be remembered that drinks such as black tea, coffee, sweet water, alcohol, can not replace clean water in the diet.
The Importance of HLS for Diabetes: Sports, Habits
For the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is very important to observe the norms of a healthy lifestyle (HLS) and not be limited only to proper nutrition. In particular, people with a predisposition to the disease and at the stage of prediabetes are advised to exercise regularly. The World Health Organization recommends training for at least 30 minutes. Doctors add that medium, aerobic, loads are best suited, because they help maintain normal weight. Therefore, people who are prone to diabetes should definitely make exercise on their daily schedule. Adhering to such a regime is not as difficult as it might seem. For example, Danish scientists have found that daily cycling to work or just walking completely replaces gym workouts. Such recommendations will help increase physical activity:
- Do not use the elevator, but walk the stairs.
- Devote more time to active games with children.
- Make it a rule to take an evening walk before bedtime.
- Using public transport, it is possible to get to the bus stop earlier and walk the remaining distance.
- Exercise in the morning.
Diabetes is associated with cardiovascular diseases, in particular, such a diagnosis increases the risk of developing myocardial infarction several times. To reduce the likelihood of such complications, doctors recommend getting rid of bad habits. First of all, give up cigarettes, because nicotine contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
For patients with insulin resistance, it is important to visit a doctor regularly and monitor your blood sugar. People over 40 years of age are recommended to undergo a full examination by a cardiologist and endocrinologist once a year. Doctors may prescribe medication, but remember that the key to preventing type 2 diabetes is healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition.