Type 2 diabetes: basic facts about the disease

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Type 2 diabetes: basic facts about the disease

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease, the main sign of which is high blood sugar. The etiology of the disease today is considered insulin resistance, that is, insensitivity of the tissues of the human body to the action of insulin.

The mechanism of development of type 2 diabetes 
One of the main reasons for the development of type 2 diabetes is obesity, which develops as a result of a diet  and sedentary lifestyle. At the same time, fat, which is found in excess in the body of an overweight person, synthesizes a special hormone (leptin), which makes tissues insensitive to the action of insulin. Normally, insulin triggers the formation of glycogen from glucose, thus transferring it from the blood to liver and muscle tissue. This hormone is synthesized by pancreatic beta cells. In type 2 diabetes, she receives a signal “there is too much glucose in the blood” and begins to work in an enhanced mode. As a result, insulin is produced even more, but it is still not perceived by the tissues. The final link in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is the complete depletion of pancreatic beta cells and a gradual decrease in insulin synthesis.

Who is Type 2 Diabetes and What are the Key Risk Factors

Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% of other types of diabetes, which include type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes, etc. Who is most likely to suffer from this pathology? 

  • Persons over 40 years old.
  • Obese people (body mass index greater than 30).
  • People with a history of diabetes.
  • Women who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy or who had large babies weighing more than 4.5 kg.

What are the main symptoms of type 2 diabetes? 
Type 2 diabetes may present with the following symptoms.

  • Constant thirst and dry mouth.
  • Polyuria – excessive urination, frequent and in large portions.
  • Itchy skin.
  • Obesity, which is the main cause and effect of the disease.
  • Poor healing of wounds, abrasions.
  • General deterioration of health: weakness, dizziness, decreased performance. 

How can type 2 diabetes be detected? 
The easiest way to suspect type 2 diabetes is to have a blood sugar test . Normally, fasting blood sugar is 3.3-5.5 mmol / L. In diabetes, this figure is higher. If the sugar level in two measurements exceeded the permissible norm, consultation with an endocrinologist is necessary. He will prescribe a special follow-up examination and, if the diagnosis is confirmed, will select the treatment. Most often, at the initial stages of the disease, a special diet is prescribed as treatment with the restriction of easily digestible carbohydrates and animal fats, it is recommended to reduce weight and lead a more active lifestyle. If these measures do not bring effect, special sugar-lowering drugs are prescribed. At the last stages of the disease, with the inefficiency of all of the above, insulin therapy is recommended.   

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