Diabetes mellitus: questions and answers
Diabetes mellitus – what is it?
– Consistently high blood sugar. It so happens that a patient diagnosed with diabetes mellitus has a blood sugar level not exceeding critical levels, it turns out that as if there is no illness, and if not, then there are no complications / consequences. In other words, diabetes mellitus in this situation turns into a certain way of life.
Michel Berger, a well-known physician in Germany , has created a special project to treat and support this disease. The program is based on the information that diabetes is not a disease – it is just such a way of life: “Being sick with diabetes is like driving a car on a highway filled with other cars. Here you cannot do without knowledge of the rules of the road ”. This program is very popular in Germany and has been used for a long time in Russia, everywhere it has shown good results. Michelle Berger said: “Diabetes mellitus is not a malaise, but a certain way of life” and the project of a popular doctor helps the patient to improve the quality of life with the help of simple and understandable methods of self-study and self-control.
Due to what causes an increase in blood sugar levels in this disease?
– Due to the relative or absolute lack of insulin in the blood.
Insulin – what is it?
– It is a protein hormone, so insulin is administered only through subcutaneous injections.
Where is it produced?
– In special cells of the pancreas.
How does the pancreas function in a person without diabetes?
– The production of insulin in the blood occurs in response to an increase in blood sugar. If the sugar level decreases, the flow of insulin into the blood also decreases.
Where does the insulin produced by the pancreas go?
– Into the blood.
What happens to sugar with insulin?
– He walks into the cells.
What Other Substances Lower Blood Sugar Levels?
– There are practically none. Other foods and hormones do not lower blood sugar levels.
What are the sources of blood sugar intake?
– There are two sources in total: stores of glucose in the liver and carbohydrates in food.
If you completely eliminate carbohydrates from food, the increase in sugar will still occur through carbohydrates from the liver, which is why insulin must be injected with type 1 diabetes.
Why does the body need glucose (sugar)?
– Cells need glucose just like a car needs gasoline or firewood for a fireplace. It is not recommended to treat diabetes mellitus by excluding carbohydrates from the usual diet, because cells need glucose as food.
Why is it still not enough with an increased sugar level?
– If there is a lack of insulin, sugar is not able to enter the cells and starvation occurs in them.
What is the fasting blood sugar level ?
60-100 mg% or 3.3-5.5 mmol / L (conversion factor is 18).
After a normal meal, to what level can blood sugar rise?
– Up to 140 mg% or 7.8 mmol / L. Such indicators are considered normal.
With elevated blood sugar, what are the symptoms (i.e. hyperglycemia)?
– Thirst begins when a large amount of urine is excreted;
– There is weakness and fatigue;
– The person is losing weight;
– Itchy skin begins;
– Wounds heal slowly, etc.
All of these complications and symptoms of diabetes mellitus are associated with high blood sugar levels.
Why does type 1 diabetes mellitus have high blood sugar?
– Due to the fact that there is not enough insulin in the human body, this happens due to disorders of the pancreas. It is necessary to constantly monitor the blood sugar level and, if necessary, correct its increase through insulin injections. Every person with diabetes needs to have blood sugar measurements taken 4 times a day.
What makes a patient with diabetes constantly thirsty and excretes a lot of urine?
– If blood sugar rises above certain limits, it gets into the urine. Each gram of sugar in the urine captures and removes 15-20 grams of water and the chemical elements contained in it, which are needed for the normal functioning of the body (magnesium, potassium, sodium chlorine).
Sugar enters urine, at what blood sugar level?
– At the level of the renal threshold for glucose.
“Renal threshold” – what does this concept mean?
– This is the required minimum of blood sugar, at which the penetration of sugar into the urine begins. It is a must for every person suffering from diabetes mellitus.
Why Know Your Kidney Threshold Level?
– To avoid energy loss.
Weight loss during diabetes can occur due to the loss of energy (glucose) excreted along with urine in a situation where there is little insulin in the blood. Normal blood sugar levels for a person suffering from diabetes mellitus are such that sugar does not enter the urine and the sugar level does not exceed the kidney threshold.
Under certain conditions, blood sugar “target limits” can change. For example, during childbearing, blood sugar should not be higher than 8 mmol / l, even in a situation where the level of the renal threshold is significantly higher. This need is the key to the normal course of pregnancy. The renal threshold depends not only on a specific person, it changes throughout the life of the same patient: during pregnancy, etc. For people with diabetes mellitus, a necessary part of the lifestyle is to determine the renal threshold.
What other substances can there be in the urine of a patient with diabetes mellitus ?
– Acetone or Ketone bodies.
What should be blood sugar in order for them to appear?
– If the blood sugar level is 13.5-14 mmol / l, this is a good reason to check the urine for the content of acetone in it.
Ketone bodies appear in urine due to high blood sugar levels caused by a lack of insulin. If acetone is found in the blood, an additional dose of short insulin must be administered. The rest of the methods will not give the desired effect if the root cause is not eliminated – a lack of insulin.
When severe hypoglycemia develops, acetone may appear in the urine. Therefore, it is not enough to control only urine sugar. You also need to know the blood sugar level.
Now in no country in the world there are any methods of treating type 1 diabetes, except for a certain lifestyle and insulin injections every day. This technique is followed by insulin dependent people all over the world.
Patients with diabetes are advised to constantly monitor their lifestyle and urine and blood sugar levels. In addition, control nutrition, play sports, and follow certain rules for foot care. Only then will a person dependent on insulin be able to lead a full life, go to their favorite job, be creative, start a family, etc.