What is diabetes mellitus? what is the difference between insulin-independent and insulinosis- dependent diabetes mellitus
What is diabetes mellitus? Try to answer yourself. Remember what the doctor told you when you first came to your appointment? Probably, to pass urine and blood tests. Both urine and blood sugar were found to be high. Then you were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. In an ordinary person, blood sugar levels vary within a certain strict range, but in urine it is completely absent. People suffering from diabetes mellitus have high blood sugar levels, and sugar is also present in the urine.
Therefore, diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood sugar on a chronic basis. Why is this happening? Because similar effects associated with diabetes are due to high blood sugar.
If the patient learns to manage his body well, then the blood sugar level will always remain at approximately the same level and the disease will turn into a way of life. This is the only way to avoid the consequences associated with this disease. View
diabetes mellitus directly affects lifestyle. There are two types of this disease.
Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. This type of disease occurs when there is an excess of insulin levels in the blood. But insulin is still not enough to normalize blood sugar levels. This type of disease manifests itself most often in patients over 40 years of age. It develops against the background of increased weight and blood cholesterol levels; it often happens that patients also suffer from high blood pressure. In this situation, it is necessary to strictly control nutrition, start playing sports and lose extra pounds – all this is needed to normalize blood sugar levels. It is impossible to achieve the effect of tablets alone.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It develops in patients suffering from decreased production of a protein hormone. In most cases, it is detected up to a certain age: children, adolescents, youth. But it happens that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus occurs in older people. We will dwell on the reasons for the development of this disease later. With type 1 diabetes mellitus, continuous insulin is needed.
High blood sugar levels will cause complications that are inevitable if these recommendations are ignored.
What factors increase blood sugar levels? A person with type 1 or type 2 diabetes has high blood sugar. And, if such excess sugar is present, it means that it is missing somewhere. But where exactly? In the cells of the body, which requires sugar (glucose) as a source of energy.
Sugar for cells can be compared to gasoline for a car or wood for a fireplace. But glucose appears in the cells of the body only through insulin. If it is not enough, then sugar, when it enters the bloodstream from the liver or intestines, will remain in the blood. But because of this, cell starvation occurs. The hunger that occurs in diabetes mellitus is not due to a lack of adequate nutrition, but to a lack of insulin (cells do not have enough glucose). Let’s imagine a person sitting in a glass aquarium floating down a river in the summer. A person will be thirsty, although there is a lot of water around, but this water will not get into the aquarium. By analogy, the same happens with the cells of the body – they are starving, and there is a lot of sugar in the blood.
What can you do to lower your sugar? Only insulin will help .
Insulin – what is it? Protein hormone. It appears due to special cells in the pancreas. In a healthy person, insulin enters the bloodstream on an ongoing basis. If the level of sugar in the blood rises, the production of insulin by the pancreas increases, with a decrease, accordingly, it decreases.
A certain amount of carbohydrates is constantly in the blood. As a result, a small amount of insulin is released into the bloodstream from the pancreas on a regular basis. After a meal that contains carbohydrates, blood glucose levels rise. The extra insulin is secreted from the pancreas. Changes in blood sugar levels depend on the production and delivery of insulin into the bloodstream. It can be called the “autopilot” of the pancreas.
If this “autopilot” stops working, you can help your body by following certain rules (they are different for type 1 and type 2 diabetes). Let’s take a look at the common points and causes that affect blood sugar levels.
The effect of insulin (a protein hormone) on blood sugar …
Some believe that the protein hormone insulin breaks down blood sugar. This is not entirely true. If this were the case, then we could easily drink coffee with sugar by adding insulin to the glass. Everything is much more complicated. By means of insulin, sugar enters the cell from the blood. It’s like opening a door with a key. In the absence of insulin, sugar cannot enter the cells and remains in the blood. Cell starvation occurs, a person feels hunger.
A patient suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus in such a situation (feeling of the year, high blood sugar) should not eat, but take an injection of insulin, because food with a lack of insulin will not lead to saturation. The more you eat, the correspondingly, blood sugar will also increase, but hunger will not disappear. The introduction of insulin will help glucose enter the bloodstream and a satiety state will ensue.
“We don’t give ourselves insulin shots,” say type 2 diabetes patients. “What to do in a situation in which the blood sugar level is high, but you still want to eat?”
If you’re really hungry, eat foods that don’t add many calories to your diet or raise your blood sugar. A person gains weight from high-calorie foods, and these extra pounds become the main reason for the development of type 2 diabetes. Low-calorie foods are vegetables: carrots, radishes, cabbage, tomatoes. If you experience hunger with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, eat a vegetable salad (no dressing). Eliminate sandwiches, pies, etc. from your diet.
Many insulin dependent patients ask the question: “Can I inject insulin without injections?” No, you can’t do that. Insulin is a protein hormone that breaks down when it enters the stomach. Therefore, he will not be able to perform his functions in this case.
After some time, it is likely that other, in addition to injection, methods of introducing insulin into the human body will be developed. Now doctors in all parts of the world are working on this. Currently, insulin delivery is only available by injection.