The role of insulin in the body of measurable
Insulin is a protein hormone that is synthesized in special cells of the pancreas. In the human body, it plays one of the central roles, affecting the metabolism in almost all tissues of the human body. Insulin enhances the formation of protein and fat molecules, inhibits the activity of certain enzymes to break down fats into smaller structures, but perhaps the main effect of insulin is its ability to reduce the amount of glucose in the blood.
The main trigger for the synthesis of this hormone is a decrease in blood glucose. In response to a lack of sugar, the body signals the need for an urgent release of the hormone insulin into the blood.
Insulin is formed and released into the blood in stages. Initially, its inactive form is synthesized, and after a series of chemical transformations during maturation, it is converted into the active form. Scientists have long proven that the maximum production of insulin occurs at night. During the day when a person is awake, this process slows down.
After the synthesis of the hormone, it is necessary that it enters the bloodstream. Special pancreatic cells, called beta cells, contain receptors that are sensitive to changes in blood sugar. In response to a signal of an increase in glucose, by cleavage, insulin is released from beta cells, entering this way into the blood.
Insulin is a universal hormone. It covers all types of metabolism in the body. The main role of insulin in the metabolism of carbohydrates is associated with its action on target cells and activation of the transport of excess glucose in the blood in them.
Among the cells of the body, the most sensitive to insulin are the cells of muscle and adipose tissue, the liver. They are the ones who maximize the use of all sugar deposited by insulin for work, and also “store” it in case of energy hunger.
In this case, glucose is deposited in the form of a special substance – glycogen. As needed, glucose is released from glycogen and enters the circulatory system.
Other insulin effects are also important. Firstly, it enhances the transport of amino acids into the cells, which are the building blocks of proteins, secondly, it helps the cells absorb potassium, magnesium, phosphate ions, and thirdly, it enhances the formation of fatty acids and their subsequent mobilization into adipose tissue.
In contrast to the action of insulin , pancreatic cells produce the hormone glucagon, which, on the contrary, increases the level of glucose in the blood. Similar effects have adrenaline – the stress hormone and glucorticoids – hormones of the adrenal cortex.
In the human body, all these processes are interconnected and any deviation from the norm can lead to adverse consequences. Thus, an increase in blood glucose (hyperglycemia) is the basis for the development of diabetes mellitus, severe complications of which can be hyperglycemic coma and death. Although the opposite process, hypoglycemia, can have negative consequences if a person was not provided with medical care on time.
Insulin deficiency disorders
The most famous diseases associated with insulin deficiency are diabetes. It is of two types.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) usually develops at a young age, its cause is a malfunction of the pancreas with a violation of insulin production, and as a result, an increase in blood glucose. People with this type of diabetes are forced to inject insulin for life to prevent an increase in blood glucose;
In the second type of diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent), the insulin in the cells of the pancreas is produced in sufficient quantities, but the target cells lose their sensitivity to it and cannot “take” excess glucose in reserve. More often this type of disease affects people with obesity, over 40 years old. Such patients are forced to take drugs that stimulate the receptors of target cells and make them sensitive to insulin.