What role does sugar play in the hormonal system?
Diabetes is an extremely common disease these days. According to statistics, more than 80% of older people are affected. Moreover, people of middle and even young age, as well as children, are increasingly at risk. This is due to malnutrition and excess weight, a hereditary predisposition and metabolic disorders, autoimmune and various somatic diseases. Have you ever wondered why diabetes is called “sugar”? And, in general, sugar in the hormonal system – what is its role ? What is glucose and what hormones control the level of its content in the blood?
What is glucose?
Grape sugar or glucose is a carbohydrate of the monosaccharide group, one of the main components involved in the metabolic processes of the human body. It is glucose that provides living cells with energy and is the initial product of the biosynthesis of almost all substances.
Normally, the level of glucose in human blood is constant (100 mg), which is ensured during the synthesis and breakdown of glycogen. Sugar in the hormonal system plays almost the main role , as it is one of the main sources of energy that supports the stable functioning of muscle tissue, which takes an active part in absolutely all chemical reactions that occur in the body of living things, including humans.
The endocrine system is responsible for the distribution of sugar throughout the body’s cells, as well as maintaining its normal level in the blood. The endocrine glands produce hormones with the help of which humoral regulation of metabolic processes is carried out.
Glucose penetrates into the cells of all organs and tissues of the body from the blood, and the hormone insulin, produced by the endocrine part of the pancreas, the secretory organ of the digestive system, is responsible for this. In addition to insulin, this organ produces the hormone glucagon and C-septide, which are involved along with insulin in humoral regulation, and pancreatic juice with special enzymes necessary for the digestion of food – carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
The role of sugar in the hormonal system , as well as in all other systems and organs of the human body, is invaluable. Dysfunction of the pancreas, i.e., destabilization of hormone production, becomes the cause of the development of many diseases, including diabetes mellitus.
The importance of insulin in humoral regulation
As already mentioned, the main task of insulin is to stimulate the penetration of glucose into the cells of the body from the blood. Under the influence of this hormone, all synthesizing processes are activated, sugar absorption by muscle and fatty tissues increases, and the process of glucose conversion to glycogen is stimulated.
The same insulin contributes to the synthesis of fatty acids, thanks to it, fat is deposited in adipose tissues, plus, the breakdown of fat and, accordingly, the formation of toxic ketone bodies are inhibited. Among other things, this hormone prevents the formation of glucose and other biological substances in the liver, that is, it controls the processes of glycogenesis and glyconeogenesis.
If for some reason the pancreas does not cope with its direct duties and insulin is produced in insufficient or excessive amounts, its content in the blood is disturbed. As a result, all chemical processes in which glucose is involved are disrupted, resulting in the emergence of a painful condition. In other words, diabetes and a number of other serious diseases develop. The treatment of such pathologies requires the use of serious drug therapy, and in some cases, surgical intervention.