Uncompensated diabetes: what is it?
Decompensated diabetes mellitus is a condition due to which it is not possible to normalize the glucose content in the body, or its correction with medications is not enough.
As a result, in the absence of the required therapeutic effect, with decompensated diabetes, complications in the functioning of all internal organs and systems are manifested. And this situation requires immediate medical attention in order to review the already prescribed treatment regimen.
In medical practice, two types of sweet disease are distinguished. The first type in the vast majority of cases occurs in young patients, and the second type of pathology in people over 30 years of age.
With a prolonged course of chronic pathology or non-compliance with medication, complications may develop. They indicate the development of the stage of decompensation of the disease, when the blood sugar level is not at the required level.
You need to consider when decompensated type 2 diabetes develops, what symptoms indicate its development? What is ketoacidosis talking about, and what complications do diabetics develop?
Pathology in the stage of decompensation
Diabetes in the decompensation phase is assessed through laboratory tests. The severe course of type 2 diabetes is indicated by various indicators.
For example, if a patient has a blood sugar content of more than 14 units on an empty stomach, or glucose is released more than 50 grams per day. And also, if there is ketoacidosis.
Decompensated diabetes mellitus, regardless of its type, can lead to quite serious complications – a diabetic coma.
An important role in the development of a sweet disease is played by a genetic predisposition, the age of the patient, unhealthy diet, overweight, pancreatic diseases, and constant stressful situations.
Decompensated diabetes may result from the following causes:
- Failure to follow recommended diet.
- Incorrectly entered dosage of the hormone.
- Violation of the prescribed treatment regimen.
Each patient with diabetes must every day control his blood sugar not only after eating, but also on an empty stomach. This will help a special device called a glucometer.
Diabetes decompensation and complications
As mentioned above, decompensation of diabetes mellitus can be the result of impaired functionality of many internal organs and systems. Complications can be conditionally divided into two forms: acute form (ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia, and so on) and chronic form (diabetic foot, heart failure, gangrene in diabetes mellitus).
With decompensation of diabetes, a diabetic coma can develop. If you do not provide timely assistance to the patient, do not consult a doctor, then the only outcome of this situation will be death.
Decompensated diabetes mellitus can lead to the following complications:
- Problems with bones and joints. Due to the fact that in the body of a diabetic, metabolic processes are disturbed, blood circulation, bones become especially fragile, and the joints are completely deformed.
- Diseases of the skin and mucous membranes. Since the full circulation of the blood is disturbed in the patient’s body, this process in turn leads to atrophic changes. The main manifestations are the formation of ulcers, the appearance of dermatoses, trophic ulcers can develop on the legs.
- Disruption of the digestive tract. Stomatitis, gingivitis and other pathologies develop in the mouth. Disorders of work from the gastrointestinal tract are observed. If the patient also has ketoacidosis, diathesis may occur, which may be complicated by stomach or intestinal bleeding.
- Visual impairment.
- Decreased functionality of the central nervous system. In this case, the first sign is a change in the nature of the diabetic. The patient becomes extremely irritable, short-tempered, depressive syndrome manifests itself, memory problems are observed.
It must be said that type 1 diabetes mellitus in the stage of decompensation is sometimes detected by the absence of a reaction to hormone injections.
Such a patient begins to manifest a pronounced clinical picture – constant thirst, a sharp decrease in body weight.
Patient Therapy Scheme
Therapy for diabetics in this case should be comprehensive. It involves the strict administration of medications, it is necessary to follow a low-carb diet for diabetics , limit physical activity, and constantly monitor blood sugar levels.
If acute complications develop (ketoacidosis, hyperglycemic coma , etc.), then it is required to treat the patient exclusively in a hospital. When hypoglycemia develops, the patient is given a sweet drink or granulated sugar. It is imperative to control the amount of carbohydrates that come with food.
In a severe case, an ambulance is called. After her arrival, the patient may require the introduction of Glucagon solution. If a coma developed, then hormone-based drugs are used, infusion treatment is carried out.
In a situation where the patient has developed retinopathy, drugs that help improve blood circulation are recommended. In a more severe version, laser treatment or more radical methods of therapy are prescribed.
In conclusion, it should be said that compensation for sugar disease is necessary for the normal functioning of all internal organs and systems of the human body. Since the stage of decompensation is a direct threat to the life of the patient.